Monday, April 30, 2018


अचिन्त्यस्याप्रमेयस्य निर्गुणस्य गुणात्मनः । उपासकानां सिद्ध्यर्थं ब्रह्मणो रूपकल्पना ।
The ultimate reality is beyond human understanding, immeasurable, and without any attributes. Yet, the knowledgeable impose attributes to IT for the easy comprehension by laymen.

The word property - गुण - has been derived from the root गुण् मन्त्रणे + घञ. It has been defined as द्रव्याश्रय्यगुणवान् संयोगनिभागेष्वकारणमनपेक्ष इति गुणलक्षणम्. It can be interpreted as स्वाश्रयसमानाधिकरणो यो द्रव्यविभाजको धर्मः. This means that a property – गुण – is that, which, as a class (blue, green, red, all belong to the same category of property - color), is found only along with substances, which is singularly unique in itself (it does not have any characteristic other than itself), and independently, it does not move or cause motion. We use property to differentiate between same and different objects and describe them - like by number, quantity (meter, gram, liter, etc.), color, taste, etc.

If we want to assign any characteristic to something, we must find or describe its base (उक्थ – यतो उत्तिष्ठन्ति सर्वाणि भूतानि) and then describe the properties or characteristics of its radiations (प्राण) that arise from its confinement (अशीति - अशूँ॒ व्या॑प्तौ सङ्घा॒ते च॑). When we “see” something, what we actually perceive is the radiation emanating from its surface meeting the electrons of our eyes. If we touch the object, we do not touch these radiation, but we touch the confining surface (अशीति) that emits the radiation. Thus, what we “see” is different from what we “touch”, even though both belong to the same object. Hence, without mixing all perceptions, we cannot describe the object properly (अनवर्णे इमे भूमिः). This is universal to all perceived objects in the universe.

A unique and fundamental identifying characteristic can only be described by itself (Tattwa - तत् त्व or तत्त्व). The single measurable (Miti - मिति or मेय) minimum unit (Matra - मात्रा) of something fundamental can only be “that-ness” (Tanmaatraa - तन्मात्रा). It is imperceptible. Because visual perception requires three conditions to be satisfied: 1) it must radiate light within the visible spectrum - रूपवत्व, 2) it must not be a single unit - अनेकद्रव्यवत्व and 3) it must have three spatial dimensions - महत्त्व. When it becomes compounded through accumulation (बहुत्व or भूमा - Bhoomaa) by scattering (Moorchhanaa - मूर्छना) particles to have form (Moortee - मूर्ति मूर्छनात्) and become perceptible, it becomes the mother (Matara - मातर) or special characteristic (मा इतर – मेतर – metara or matter) of such uniqueness to be revealed as a specific aspect of matter (conglomerate of elementary particles – Bhoota - भूत). For this reason, Rigveda 3-46-3 says:
प्र मात्राभी रिरिचे रोचमानः प्र देवेभिर्विश्वतो अप्रतीतः ।
प्र मज्मना दिव ईन्द्र पृथिव्याः प्रोरोहोर्महो अन्तरिक्षादृजीषी ।

Nothing is “ex-nihilo”. Thus, the ultimate reality must have all the fundamental characteristics. These are compounded through pentafication (पञ्चीकरण) in a sequence (अणु, रेणु, गुण, महाभूत, स्थुलभूत) to form all structures in the universe (आत्मक्षर, विश्वसृट्, पञ्चजन, पुरञ्जन, पुर). While the deformations (विकार) take place, it requires a base (प्रतिष्ठा) to sustain it. That base does not have the properties of perception – hence dark (कृष्ण). According to Rigveda 10-90-3: पादोऽस्य विश्वाभूतानि त्रिपादस्यांमृत दिवि. This is the so-called 75% dark energy, which is non-interacting. The rest of 25%, expands and then contracts to form structures. For this reason, Rigveda 10-90-4 says: त्रिपादूर्ध्व उदैत्पुरुषः पादोऽस्येहाभवत् पुनः. This means, it first expanded by 3 steps (2+3+4 = 9, taking the total to 10) before reducing to 1 part. In the Puranas, it is described as Trivikrama - त्रिविक्रम वामन taking three steps to cover the universe and compress Bali to the nether worlds. The missing 9 parts (of the 25%) is the so-called dark matter.

Trying to explain the mechanism of creation, Rigveda 10-130-3 asks and answers in the same mantra:
कासीत् प्रमा प्रतिमा किं निदानमाज्यं किमासीत् परिधिः क आसीत् ।
छन्दः किमासीत् प्रउगकिमुक्थं यद्देवा देवमयजन्त विश्वे ।।

Here the question कासीत् is also the answer - क आसीत् – Prajaapati (प्रजापतिः). Here the word Maa - मा - indicates confinement to make it measurable (from माङ् माने). The difference between one, which indicates non-availability of a similar and infinity (अनन्त), which also has similar characteristics (नैकत्वमस्त्यनानात्वं विनैकत्वेन नेतरत् । परमार्थे तयोरेष भेदोत्यन्तं न विद्यते), is that, while the dimensions (परिमाण) of one are fully perceptible, the dimensions of infinity are not perceptible. Chhandah – छन्दः is the unit of energy (प्राणमात्रा छन्दः). Since the confined objects are forms of the same ultimate reality, it has similar appearances. But is not the same like the water in the sea and a bucket of the same water on land. The confinement changes the characteristic continuous motion of the sea water. This similarity can only be described as a reflection (प्रतिछन्दः). For this reason, part of the ultimate reality (परमप्रजापतिः), which Itself is Amaa – अमा - immeasurable, evolves into three divisions (त्रिवृत्) called: प्रमा, प्रतिमा, and प्रतिमान प्रजापतिः. For this reason, Yoga Sootram says: तस्य वाचकः प्रणवः – AUM - which is the combined form of अ, उ, representing उक्थ, ब्रह्म, साम, or प्रतिष्ठा, उन्मेष, सीमा, respectively. Of these, the परमप्रजापतिः is also called सर्वाधारभूता, अमृतात्मसंस्था, सहस्रबल्शेश्वर, अश्वत्थप्रजापति, षोडशीप्रजापति, त्रिपुरुषपुरुषात्मक ईश्वर, etc. For this reason, Rigveda 10-114-8 says:
सहस्रधा पञ्चदशान्युक्था यावद्द्यावापृथिवी तावदित्तत् ।
सहस्रधा महिमानः सहस्रं याबद्ब्रह्म विष्ठितं तावती वाक् ।।

Yajurveda 8-36 says:
यस्मान्न जातः परो अन्यो अस्ति य आविवेश भूवनानि विश्वा ।
प्रजापतिः प्रजया संरराणस्त्रीणिं ज्योतींषि सचते स षोडशी ।

These three aspects - त्रिणिं ज्योतींषि - are the conscious (मन), energy (प्राण) and the material (वाक्) aspects. They are inseparable complements. They co-exist; but vary in degrees of freedom. Describing these, Gita 15-16, 17 says:
द्वाविमौ पुरुषौ लोके क्षरश्चाक्षर एव च । क्षरः सर्वाणि भूतानि कूटस्थोऽक्षर उच्यते ।
उत्तमः पुरुषस्त्वन्यः परमात्मेत्युदाहृतः । यो लोकत्रयमाविश्य़ बिभर्त्यव्यय ईश्वरः ।
Here, the conscious dominated part is called Avyaya – अव्यय (मनोमयं मनस्तन्त्रम् मनोमयं मनः पञ्चकलोऽव्ययः परः पुरुषः). The energy dominated part is called Akshara - अक्षरः or Praana – प्राण (मनोमयं प्राणतन्त्रम् मनोमयः प्राणः पञ्चकलोऽअक्षरः पराप्रकृतिराभ्यन्तरा). The matter dominated part is called Kshara - क्षरः or Vaak - वाक् ((मनोमयं वाक् तन्त्रम् मनोमयी वाक् पञ्चकलोऽआत्मक्षर अपराप्रकृतिरन्तरङ्गा).

The three fold reality is the Manifest Brahman (सगुणब्रह्म), because that is involved in creation. For this, the Kathopanishad 2-3-1 says:
ऊर्ध्वमूलोऽर्वाक्शाख एसोऽश्वत्थः सनातनः । तदेव शुक्रं तद्ब्रह्म तदेवामृतमुच्यते ।
तस्मिल्लोकाः श्रिताः सर्वे तदु नात्येति किञ्चन ।। एतद्वै तत् ।।

The ultimate reality, which is beyond these, is the Un-manifest Brahman (निर्गुणब्रह्म). For IT, Shwetaashwatara Upanishad – 6-7 says:

तमीश्वराणां परमं महेश्वरं तं देवतानां परमं च दैवतम् ।
पतिः पतीनां परमं परस्तात् विदाम देवं भुवनेशमीड्यम् ।।

Brahman is Avyaya Purusha - अव्ययपुरुष. Here the word Purusha – पुरुष - implies confinement (पुर्या शेते). It can be perceived in two different ways: 1) from the perspective of intelligence (बुद्धि) and knowledge (विद्या), which is looking inwards; and 2) from the perspective of our sense organs (इन्द्रिय), which are all externally directed (पराञ्चिखानि). The manifest Brahman (सगुणब्रह्म) is related to those perceived through sense organs (इन्द्रिय) and is called mentally perceived (प्रज्ञानब्रह्म), whereas the un-manifest Brahman (निर्गुणब्रह्म) is related to Pure Science (शुद्धविद्या or विज्ञानम्). While everyone can perceive the transformative universe (वैकारिक जगत्) through the sense organs, only the knowledgeable can “see – (पश्यन्त्यार्षेण चक्षुषा)” the un-manifest unchanging aspects of the universe (प्राकृतिक जगत्).



Gravity is an inter-body force – not confined to one particle or body, whereas the others are intra-body forces - confined to (strong, weak) or arising out of (electromagnetic, disintegration) one particle or body. Can they be united in one theory? Yes – because whole is a sum of its parts and more. Why cannot we produce and control gravity? Because it is the mother of all forces including those we can ever use. Just like space and time in their universal manifestation appear as spacetime that forms the background where all objects are found and all events take place, and in their confined or digitized manifestation appear as the interval between objects and events, the same single force in its universal manifestation appears as Gravity and in its confined or digitized manifestation, resolves into the other fundamental interactions of Nature through compression, refraction, rarefaction and diffraction. Just like the same electricity appears as light, defused air, cool air, or makes ice based on the nature of the gadget used, the same Gravity in different non-linear combinations with mass, produces infinite varieties.

                Space and time are mental constructs that are perceived as our concepts of sequence and interval. The ordered sequence of intervals between objects are space and those of events are time. Since the intervals have no markers to describe them, we use alternative symbolism of the boundary objects and events to describe digital versions of analog space and time. We measure these by choosing an easily intelligible and fairly repetitive interval as the unit and compare the given interval with it, by scaling up or down. There is no natural or absolute unit for measurement of infinite space and time. The given interval can return different results depending upon the nature of the unit.

                Energy is the great unknown quantity, whose existence is perceived and measured during its state of change. Mass, charge, etc., are properties observed by others, during instantaneous transfer of energy. Like space and time, energy also is a mental construct that cannot be perceived directly, but is observed through its effect on mass. There are two static states before and after the state of change. The former is the conserved or the potential state, which is the force (cause for action). The latter is the effect measured as work. The intermediate perpetually transient state is motion, which leads to continued displacement due to inertia – thus, linking everything to time evolution. This perpetually transient – hence spinning - state is Gravity, which appears as different forces based on its linear or non-linear effect on mass. We measure motion or energy, indirectly from effects like relative displacement or scattering angles by using arbitrarily chosen units with similar properties. Charge is the interactive potential of a body. If the motion is directed away from a central position, it is positive charge. In the opposite case, it is negative charge, even though the displacement or scattering angles may be equal. Mass is the impact it creates. When energy generates motion, we feel the impact as mass.

QED is said to be a renormalized theory as a consequence of spontaneous symmetry breaking. But if something breaks spontaneously, it cannot be symmetric! There is nothing as bare charge or bare mass. In some versions of QFT, the bare mass of some particles may be ± infinity, which is meaningless, as infinity is not a big number, but something that cannot be measured. In the theory of the electroweak interaction using the Higgs boson, all particles have a bare mass of zero. This is written as:
m = m0 ± δm,
where m denotes the experimentally observable mass of the particle, m0 its bare mass (?), and δm the increase in mass owing to the interaction of the particle with the medium or field. The rate of spontaneous emission of an atom or a molecule can change depending on the electromagnetic modes of the environment in which the particle is placed. Like “Purcell effect”, it should affect nuclear transitions also. The density of the medium affects mass (a stone appears lighter under water, but heavier at high altitudes). The same mass causes different effects based on the energy that propels it. Thus, δm is really not mass, but energy that increases the effect of  impact when it interacts with another body. In QED radiative corrections to the electron propagator exist, no matter how far it is from other particles.

The statement: “the coupling terms in the Equation of motion (of an interacting theory) vanishes smoothly as t → ± ∞ implies that at asymptotic times there is no interaction and asymptotic states are free-states. If the interaction vanishes, the bare mass m0 change to renormalized or physical mass. But the asymptotic free-states must have physical mass m. Then, how will m0 be driven to m without interaction at t → ± ∞? The theory does not tend to become free - only the on-shell particles become non-interacting with each other because of the large distance between them.

Rest is a state where all forces acting on a body cancel each other. Removal of one force by an observer resolves “rest” into two equal and opposite forces being released. In the primordial universe, where force flowed freely in the primordial background, there were infinite numbers of such points of rest, which floated like bubbles in the background structure. Sometimes the accumulations grew by obstructing other free flowing forces. This can be imagined as similar to quark gluon plasma. They were the first “particles”. Their flow depended only on the density fluctuation of the field or the background structure. That determined the “geometry of space” and is known as Gravity. Gravity does not pull. Like electromagnetism tries to bring the charges of two bodies to equilibrium (as in atoms), gravity tries to bring the two bodies to equilibrium around a common barycenter. Since it is related to mass, it also is affected by the density of the medium. Hence, the value of the gravitational constant is NOT uniform or constant throughout the universe.

The scales of Nature are of two types: discreet and continuous. All confined objects, their properties and their interactions are discreet. When a confined object interacts with another, it creates a type of impression on the other. We call it mass. Mass is directly related to the density of the medium, but weight is not affected by gravity. A stone weighing 1 kg will not weigh about 250 gm on Moon, as is wrongly taught in text books. For weighing, we require a standard unit. The unit weight taken to Moon will also be equally affected as the stone to give the same reading: 1 kg. If we use a different unit weight on Moon, the other units has to be transformed by relative G, which will return the same reading. There is no proof to support that gravity affects weight.

                An apple falls to the ground not because gravity pulls it. It remains attached to the stem defying gravity. The mass of the apple increases with time to attain a maximum value. It falls because the capacity of its stem to hold it tightly gets reduced as the fruit ripens. It changes the equilibrium between the stem and the fruit, as the barycenter of the stem-fruit system is nearer to the center of the fruit than that of the stem. The fruit moves towards the Earth with the bigger mass than the stem because the density of the medium below is rarer. The apple attains equilibrium on reaching earth. The force that brings the masses together is the macro equivalent of the strong force. Spacetime curvature is myth, as it does not affect the branch underneath or a bird flying by or a man sitting under the falling apple. Gerber’s solution to Mercury’s perihelion, which was plagiarized by Einstein did not require GR. A recent report (Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 031103 – Published 17 January 2018) on linear scalar perturbations of black holes shows that strong cosmic censorship conjecture of GR is violated in the near extremal regime. Information paradox puts a question mark on GR.

A proton carrying positive charge is always at the nucleus. An electron that confines the positive charge is always in one of the orbitals. The alpha decay always involves changes in the proton number – inside the nucleus. A beta decay always involves changes in the electron number, as a consequence of adjustments in the nucleus.

                All interactions – resolution of equilibrium into a couple of opposite charge variants of gravity - involve two particles, each of which can show positive (distancing from center) or negative (proximity towards center) tendencies (charges) that are variables according to the field strength. In strong interactions, both show confined proximity-proximity tendencies. Strong interaction is characterized by exclusive, but perpetually transient position (close coupling) due to compression. The weak interaction is a perpetually proximity-distance interaction that is characterized by harmonious refraction (loose coupling without breaking the confinement) between the constituents. It is essentially as strong as the electromagnetic force, but it appears weak because its influence is limited by the energy of the Z and W bosons. The energy density limits the range of the weak force to about 10-18 meters, and it vanishes altogether beyond the radius of a single proton.

Their macro (outside confinement) equivalents with non-linear characteristics are electromagnetic interaction (distance-proximity interaction leading to equilibrium where density of the medium plays a role in fixing orbitals through rarefaction) and alpha decay (distance-distance interaction - disharmonious interaction leading to exclusion from the main body through diffraction). If the more massive body shows distance, while the other, proximity variable tendencies, the force is called electromagnetic interaction, which is characterized by the tendency of rarefaction of the field to attain equilibrium. But if both components are dominated by positive charge (distance-distance variables), then it leads to alpha decay due to diffraction, which is the symmetric fifth force of Nature.

                Gravity is the mother of all interactions that leads, in different combinations, to infinite varieties.





In pure particle ontology, interaction between remote particles can only be understood as action at a distance. In field ontology or a combined ontology of particles and fields, local action is mediated by fields. Particles are massive and impenetrable in contrast to fields. The concept of particles has been evolving through history. Wigner’s famous analysis of the Poincaré group is often assumed to provide a definition of elementary particles. Wigner’s analysis does not explain what a particle is and whether a given theory can be interpreted in terms of particles. It gives a conditional answer: If relativistic quantum mechanics can be interpreted in terms of particles, then the possible types of particles correspond to irreducible unitary representations of the Poincaré group. However, the question whether and in what sense relativistic quantum mechanics can be interpreted as a particle theory, is not addressed in his analysis. Hence, the discussion on this subject does not rest with Wigner’s analysis and the question of the localizability of particle states is still open.

The observed particle traces on photographic plates of bubble chambers seem to be a clear indication for the existence of particles. On the other hand, Quantum Field Theory, which has been built on the basis of the scattering experiments, turns out to have considerable problems to account for the observed “particle trajectories”. From this theoretical point of view, it appears to be impossible that our world is composed of particles when we assume that localizability in some finite region of spacetime is a necessary ingredient of the particle concept. Surprisingly, the very theory which excludes localizability is remarkably good in predicting experimental results which apparently involve localizable particles. So far there is no conclusive proof against the possibility of a particle interpretation for QFT. Although there are “N-particle states” among the possible states of QFT, it is not clear how these states relate to N-particles. Malament’s no-go theorem seems to show that there is no middle ground between QM and QFT, i.e., no theory which deals with a fixed number of particles (like in QM) and which is relativistic (like QFT) without solving the localizability problem.

Field is defined as a quantity or measurement assigned to all points in space. Space is the interval between objects or the background in which objects are positioned. Scalar fields assign numbers to space. Vector fields assign numbers with direction. Tensor quantities assign numbers with details like spacetime curvature to each event in spacetime. Thus a field is a set of points or energies in space and not an independent entity. Electromagnetic fields represent changes in electric and magnetic potentials (potential energy). Thus, electromagnetic field is really an energy field. A quantum field is a field with quantum measurements assigned to every point in space. Since quantum properties are different from classical objects, there can be different fields based on spin, electric charge and color charge. (Photons and gluons have zero mass, zero charge and unit spin). This implies fields exist everywhere, which is another way of describing space with energy. Every field has an equilibrium. The equilibrium for electromagnetic field is zero everywhere. A photon field has zero energy (no photons) - a vacuum state. In an electron field, the energy is converted to a photon field. These fields co-exist, which means, the same space contains different energies, but is described in a reductionist fashion. In any field, an energy higher than its vacuum state is called a particle.

To sum up: when a body enters a region of space, if it encounters some form of energy, that energy is given a name and the field is so named: electric field, magnetic field, etc. But how do fields acquire energies? Since energy cannot be created or destroyed, it must have existed in some form or the other. Energy cannot exist without a medium. In the beginning of time, when there were no structures or confinements: the medium and the force had total degrees of freedom. It resembled a river, which appears full, though every moment every drop of water is flowing down never to turn back. There was only one field and one force.

One result of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle is that it’s impossible for a system to be in a zero-energy state.  The little bit of energy is called the “ground state energy” or just “ground energy”. If a particle has zero energy, then its velocity - hence momentum - is zero.  However to get to that level of certainty, we need the position to be completely uncertain.  QFT gives an exact value for how much energy empty space should have, which involves summing the quantum mechanical zero-point energies of all the known fields in Nature.  Although we can never access that energy, it does have a gravitational effect. The Voyager probes estimated how strong those gravitational effects are.  It turned out that the theoretical predictions disagree from observation by a factor ranging from 10120 to 10107. Some have brought the difference down to 1055. This is called the Vacuum Catastrophe. This proves that modern understanding of fields is fundamentally flawed. The definition of a field as “a region in which each point is affected by a force”, is misleading. Forces, by definition, can affect only massive bodies – not fields. A point has no mass.

Light is called an electromagnetic wave, because it is a wave in an electromagnetic field. A wave is an entity without mass that is smeared over a region of finite extent. It does not have any existence independent of the medium – the field. Without a field, electromagnetic radiation cannot be transmitted, though gravity permeates everywhere. Waves are associated with momentum transfer so that they do not have fixed position co-ordinates, but have a general direction in which to transfer momentum. The direction is never along a straight line but within a narrow band of crests and troughs. The mass term in the momentum transfer refers to the background medium and not the wave proper. Since waves do not have mass or position, different waves propagating different forces can coexist.

Wavelength and frequency are extensions in space and time respectively. The motion of the wave within the narrow band is directed towards a central line - the equilibrium position. After reaching the line, it overshoots due to inertia. The boundaries confining the wave are the spread of the respective energy levels (densities). Once a particle enters the boundary, it gets confined within it till friction with the background brings it to a standstill. This is the maximum energy level.

The fact that the nuclear masses do not add up (10.1103/PhysRevA.96.060501) shows that all particles are confined bundles of mass and energy. Energy cannot be perceived directly, but only indirectly due to its effect during transition of mass. Energy moves mass differently in fields of different density. However, the resistance of the field creates a bow-shock effect on its path, where the medium is compressed and density of the medium increases by jumps due to compression, refraction, rarefaction and diffraction. Where the initial force is not confined, motion continues as a wave. If different forces cancel each other at one point, that becomes a center of mass around which confinement and structure formation begins. The interaction of confined forces are the fundamental interactions.

Are mass and energy interchangeable? The equation e=mc2 is not proved in chemical reactions. Even in nuclear reactions, the efficacy is not significant. All experimental proof in this regard relate to indirect methods. The original equation (e=mc2) itself was derived from the assumption that mass increases during motion. Thus, it is circular reasoning. The latest measurement by NIST (Nature. Dec. 22, 2005) found that E differs from mc2 by about 0.0000004. What the equation means is: for any system, mass and energy are related by a proportionality constant – and not necessarily interchangeable.


Quantum mechanics does not treat entities as particles or waves, but describes them as having a mixture of both wave and particle properties seen in interference and diffraction experiments. Since these two apparently contradictory properties have not been reconciled, the quantum world has been thought of as showing wave-particle duality; rather than a definitive, objective world, making reality ambiguous at the quantum level. But waves and particles do have different characteristics related to confinement, position coordinates and motion. The exact position of the wave tip cannot be predicted as it is perpetually in motion. But it is somewhere within a band at any given time and not smeared over all points. Because of its mobility, it has the probability of covering the entire space at some time or the other.

If electrons are waves, then the wavelength of the electron must “fit” into any orbit that it makes around the nucleus in an atom. This is the “boundary condition” for a one electron atom, which must satisfy the equation e=mc2, as derived in 1900 by Poincare. All orbits that do not have the electron’s “wavelength fit” are not possible, because wave interference will rapidly destroy the wave amplitude and the electron would not exist anymore. This “interference” effect leads to discrete (quantized) energy levels for the atom. This is precisely the pattern of energy levels that are observed to exist in the Hydrogen atom. Transitions between these levels give rise to entanglement and is seen in the pattern of the absorption or emission spectrum.

Poincaré had proved a recurrence theorem for bounded dynamical systems to show that any appropriately bounded system in which energy was conserved, would of necessity, over an infinite time return an infinite number of times to states arbitrarily close to the initial dynamical state in which the system has started. The “boundary conditions” can be satisfied by many different waves (harmonics) if each of those waves has a position of zero displacement at the right place. These positions where the value of the wave is zero are called nodes (traveling waves and standing waves are labelled by whether the nodes move or not). In the initial universe, such “nodes” acted as the center of mass, which blocked the movement of other forces to accumulate on those points. Wherever it could be in equilibrium, it led to structure formation. Inside the confinement, it led to formation of the intra-body forces of Nature in 4 steps. No particle can interact with others till its equilibrium within the confinement is broken. This is known as charge.

The field interactions are said to arise from higher order terms in the Lagrangians that define the theory. Though these interactions are intrinsic to the theory itself, they cannot be derived from anything else, but have only to be measured. They are packaged in such a way that different terms are related to each other. The Lagrangians are broken up into two separate components: terms that are quadratic in the fields and terms that are cubic or higher in the fields. What it really means is that forces act in two, three or imaginary dimensions. In the quadratic part, the Lagrangian are called the “free” (non-interacting) part of the theory and the higher order terms are called the interactions. In a quadratic term, one particle may “move in” and another “move out”. In a three field combination, another particle is added. In reality, these degrees of freedom refer to the dimension. Dimension is the interface between the internal structural space and the external relational space of any object that describe the fixed spread of objects in given directions. Since we perceive through electromagnetic radiation where the electric field, the magnetic field and their direction of motion are mutually perpendicular, we have three mutually perpendicular dimensions. There can be ten dimensions, which was explained in our last year’s essay here. But these extra-dimensions are projections of these three dimensions. Thus, a field is basically two dimensional, whereas a structure or particle is three dimensional.


Most definitions of charge describe how charges interact, but not what a charge is. Charge is said to be a characteristic of a unit of matter that expresses the extent of distribution of protons and electrons. This equates charge with the number and properties of nucleons and does not define charge by itself. Charge is also said to be a property of matter which enables it to experience a force when placed in an electric or magnetic field. This is not a correct or wholesome definition as even charge neutral objects interact with charged objects and it does not cover all fields. Since the number of protons and electrons in an atom are always equal, there cannot be free-flowing electrons, unless we consider the weak interaction. But even this cannot explain generation of electromotive force or electric current, which behave like fluids – in specific directions away from their initial position to attain equilibrium position. That some particles are their own antiparticles shows: charge is not a fundamental property.

All motions are work that require a force - a vector quantity that causes an object to change its velocity. When a net force (thrust minus gravity) is acting on an object, its kinetic energy will change by an amount equal to the work done. Everything in the universe is ever moving – possess energy (which is kinetic by nature). Rest is a state where all forces acting on a body cancel each other (become charge neutral potential energy). Motion begins when any of the forces acting on a body at rest is switched off or an additional force acts on it to break the equilibrium. The former generates positive charge (moving out to interact with others leading to creation of new combinations). The latter creates negative charge (confining positive charge). After a force is applied, the object moves away from the force and continues at the same uniform (though changed) velocity due to inertia: F=mv (unless other forces act on it, always Fma). The magnitude of motion so generated is equal to the magnitude of the force that breaks the equilibrium. This is the intensity of charge. Thus, motion is a fundamental property of everything in the universe and how the equilibrium is broken determines the interactive nature of each body – its charge. Interaction needs two bodies. The interaction can lead to total coupling of both to make them a compact system or partial coupling to make it a loosely held system. In the beginning, there was no compact structures. There was free flow of energy in a background – gravity alone.

The form of Newton’s law of gravitation and the electric field (E) equation shows that, except for the value of the constant and substitution of mass with charge, both are identical. It implies some similarity between the two. However, electric field E is said to be different from gravitational field g. Gravitational force depends on mass, which is a property of the confined body. Electric force does not depend on mass but on charges on both objects, which is related to the internal distribution of mass and energy of each body. The mass of a proton and an electron are divergent by a factor of nearly 2000, but the charges of both are approximately equal, though opposite. Thus, mass is not related to charge. Only the outer layer of an atom interacts with other atoms. But the resultant reaction affects the whole atom. Thus, charge is related to the internal distribution of mass and energy – the interactive potential of a body.

Nature exhibits itself in two ways. Some objects are directly describable by their physical content of matter, energy and radiation as mass, mobility and perceptibility respectively. Other aspects like similarity (cause for measurement), differences (cause for nomenclature) and interdependence (cause for charge) are indirectly describable through alternative symbolism of relation between objects. For example, our notions of space and time are generated by our perception of sequence and interval. The sequential interval between and surrounding masses are space and that between events (evolution of masses due to energy) are time. Their perceptible arrangement is described through coordinates. Space, time and coordinates have no physical presence, though they provide base for objects, events and evolution. They exist independent of any boundary or force or action. Forces or actions can change the interval – not space, time or coordinates. What we measure is digitized versions of the interval – not analog Space, time and coordinates. Interval implies the existence of at least two objects or events, one of which will be the reference frame. A reference frame is a framework that is used for the observation and mathematical description of physical phenomena (how much a system changes - mathematics) and the formulation of physical laws (what, why, how, when, where, etc.). It usually consists of an observer, a coordinate system and a device assigning unit interval in a coordinate system.

Since the intervals have no markers, we describe that segment of space and time by using alternative symbolism of the boundary objects and events respectively. Since measurement is a comparison between similars, we measure the designated magnitude of these intervals with easily intelligible and fairly repetitive similar intervals (like scales or ticks of watches) through comparison, and call these as space and time measurement. Space as different from time is known from their relation with objects: space is inert and time is ever changing. Every object is positioned in space and every event occurs in time. Since they coexist, we can say every event involving objects occurs in spacetime. Spacetime is known from their interdependence.

The scales of Nature are of two types: discreet and continuous. All confined objects, their properties and their interactions are discreet. When a confined object interacts with another, it creates a fixed type of impression on the other. We call it mass. Mass is directly related to the density of the medium. A stone on Earth in air appears heavier than the same stone under water. On a hill top, the same stone appears heavier – not due to acceleration due to gravity, but due to thinner air density and lack of oxygen, which chokes our efficiency. A stone weighing 1 kg will not weigh about 250 gm on Moon, as is wrongly taught in text books. For weighing, we require a standard unit. The unit weight taken to Moon will also be similarly affected as the stone to give the same reading: 1 kg. If we use a different unit weight on Moon, both the units cannot be synchronized. Hence, there is no proof to support that gravity affects mass or weight. It only indicates that gravity is related to density of the medium.


The Coulomb’s law, which cannot explain interaction between a charged particle and a charge neutral particle, can be applied to the quantum world with some modification. Two positive charges (moving away from the center of mass) brought together would repel each other violently. Two negative charges (confining the positive charge) add up – not repel each other, but coexist. For example, the negative terminal in a battery has an excess of electrons together. Two opposite charges, when totally coupled, submerge their identity by increase mass without changing chemical properties - by converting to neutrons to form isotopes. Two opposite charges, when partially coupled, retain their identity to form other particles by changing chemical properties - form other elements. Depending upon how the internal equilibrium is broken: whether a force is switched off propelling the body to “move out” (generating positive charge) or a new force acts propelling it to “move in” (generating negative charge) from the position at “rest” (charge neutral state), the same body reacts with the others by showing either distancing or proximity tendencies that vary according to the magnitude of the force that breaks the equilibrium. This can also explain the latest observation relating to differences in collision of protons with protons and heavy nuclei (Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 022001 – Published 8-1-2018).


Rest is a state where all forces acting on a body cancel each other (become charge neutral potential energy). In the primordial universe, where force flowed freely in the primordial background, there were infinite numbers of such points, which floated like bubbles in the background structure. Sometimes the accumulations grew by obstructing other free flowing forces. This can be imagined as similar to quark gluon plasma. They were the first particles. Their flow depended only on the density fluctuation of the background structure. That determines the geometry of space and is known as gravity. Gravity does not pull. Like electromagnetism tries to bring the charges of two bodies to equilibrium, gravity tries to bring the two bodies to equilibrium around a common point called barycenter. The measured value of acceleration due to gravity shows that it is maximum at the surface of the Earth and decreases if we go up or down from the surface of the Earth. This is because; the barycenter for practically all bodies with respect to Earth is on the surface of the Earth.

An apple falls to the ground not because gravity pulls it. It remains attached to the stem defying gravity. The mass of the apple increases with time to attain a maximum value. It falls because the capacity of its stem to hold it tightly gets reduced as the fruit ripens. It changes the equilibrium between the stem and the fruit, as the barycenter of the stem-fruit system is nearer to the center of the fruit than that of the stem. The fruit moves towards the Earth with the bigger mass than the stem with the smaller mass and attains equilibrium. The force that brings the masses together is the macro equivalent of the strong force. Spacetime curvature is myth, as it does not affect the branch underneath or a bird flying by or a man sitting under the falling apple.

On scales less than about 0.8 fm, the color force operates, where two particles with opposite charge show proximity-proximity tendencies (moving towards each other), they generate strong interaction - coupling the two bodies to form a new particle. But it would not be stable if two positive charges interact – they will repel each other. If two negative charges interact, they increase energy density only. Two quark-antiquark pairs form unstable mesons. But if another quark of the opposite charge is added, then following Poincaré’s recurrence theorem, it leads to limited conservation of energy by formation of nucleons. If the energy of the confining negative charge equals or exceeds the positive charge, it forms a neutron by compressing gravity within the confinement. This is the strong nuclear interaction. But what if the negative charge is less than the positive charge?

The strong nuclear force is said to glue the atomic nuclei but the weak nuclear force helps in beta decay. Basically, the W bosons involve flavor change in a particle. When a neutron decays into a proton, the neutron releases a W-, which decays into an electron or the high mass Muon or Tau and changes the neutron into a proton, an electron (e-) and a neutrino. In the opposite reaction turning a proton into a neutron, a W+ particle is needed. But the neutron (939.57 MeV) or proton (938.28 MeV) has very little mass as compared to a W boson (80.4 GeV). Wherefrom they get such high energy? It is said that the vacuum energy of space itself creates these random decays. The virtual particles can pop into existence even within the nucleus of an atom. But no one has verified it. Further, this proposition is questioned after the Vacuum Catastrophe discussed earlier.

These contradictions can be eliminated if we consider the charge difference in the strong nuclear interaction. Experiments have put a non-zero electric charge on neutrons, which has been measured and found to be qn = (-1.5~2.2) x 10-20 electron charges ( Particles have a weak charge, analogous to the electric charge that describes a particle’s propensity to have weak interactions with other particles. This weak charge is predicted by the Standard Model to be about -0.989 for neutrons, about -0.071 for electrons and about +0.071 for protons, as measured in elementary charge units (Source: Jefferson Accelerator Laboratory). Similarly, charge of electrons and protons are found not to be equal. The upper limit to the electron proton charge difference is (0.8 ± 0.8) 10−21 e (Physics Letters B, Volume 137, Issues 5-6, pages 439-442 - (84)91752-0). It is a logical conclusion, as charge neutral atoms cannot interact. Since the nature of negative charge is to move from the surface towards the nucleus, the excess negative charge is not evident from outside.

Assuming the present measured value is true, a proton has two up quarks with +2/3 charge and one down quark with -1/3 charge (my theory discussed separately shows 3% error in the measured value – these are +7/11 for up quarks and -4/11 for down quarks). This makes proton charge equal to +1 (in my theory it is +10/11 in electron units). Since positive charge “move out”, it is comparatively stable against the background where it is confined by an electron, which is the tip of an outgoing radiation confined by the field. Since the proton radiates in all directions, which is confined by the medium or the field, the electron appears all around, but cannot be predicted at any particular location at any specific time (in my theory, the neutron has -1/11 charge of an electron). Thus, protons and neutrons attract each other. Since there is an imbalance, the outgoing radiation of protons create an intense field due to refraction that appears as the W boson. The interaction between these two charges releases a small amount of energy that appear as the neutrino/anti-neutrino. Similar interaction also takes place in the reverse direction. These are the beta decay or beta minus decay part of weak interaction, which are caused by refracting gravity within the confinement. Thus, weak interaction is a proximity-distance interaction. The weak force is essentially as strong as the electromagnetic force, but it appears weak because its influence is limited by the energy of the Z and W bosons. Their energy limits the range of the weak force to about 10-18 meters, and it vanishes altogether beyond the radius of a single proton.

Neutrinos are particles that interact only via the weak interaction. When physicists shot neutrinos through the bubble chamber, they were able to detect evidence of the weak neutral current; hence indirect evidence for the Z boson. After the description of the electromagnetic force in terms of the emission and absorption of photons, the concept of the weak force being transmitted by intermediary messenger particles started. Initially, it was thought that only charged weak messengers were involved in all observed weak interactions. However, attempts to produce a gauge-invariant theory of the weak force suggested unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions. The resulting electroweak theory required two neutral particles. Of these, photon was one and Z boson was the other. The “width” of the Z is said to be related to the particle’s lifetime through the uncertainty principle and gives a measure of its lifetime and thereby reflects the number of ways in which the particle can decay. The greater the number of ways it decays, the shorter its life. Measurements show that when the Z decays to neutrino-antineutrino pairs, it produces only three pairs of neutrino: electron-positron, muon-antimuon, and tau-antitau.

The chirality of weak interaction (the left-chiral electron is charged under the weak force whereas the right-chiral anti-positron is not - the electron and the anti-positron are not the same particle) proves this. Force and torque cause changes in the motion of objects. A force is any influence which tends to change the motion of an object. In torque, the axis of rotation is also involved. These are the cause for chirality. Chirality is the wave motion in three dimensions. In the limit of zero mass they correspond to the left or right helicity. Rotational equilibrium is where the addition of all the torques acting on an object equals zero - when there is no torque or all the torques acting on the object cancel each other.


While the strong interaction is characterized by exclusive position (close coupling), the weak interaction is characterized by harmony (weak coupling) between the constituents at micro scale. Their macro equivalents are electromagnetic interaction and alpha decay. If the more massive body shows distance, while the other, proximity variable tendencies, the force is called electromagnetic interaction, which is characterized by the tendency of rarefaction of the field to attain equilibrium. But if both components are dominated by positive charge (distance-distance variables), then it leads to alpha decay due to diffraction, which is the fifth force of Nature.

Gravity is the mother force, which resolves into four fundamental interactions. These five can form non-linear combinations that produce infinite varieties.

Tuesday, February 13, 2018

आधुनिक समाजमें वेद का प्रासङ्गिकता

आधुनिक समाजमें वेद का प्रासङ्गिकता

जगन्नाथ पुरी के गोवर्द्धनपीठ के पूर्व शङ्कराचार्य भारतीकृष्ण तीर्थ महास्वामी से एक विदेशी व्यक्ति ने प्रश्न किया पृथ्वी पर हिन्दुओँ का संख्या अल्प है । उनमें से सब आपको नहिँ मानते । तो आप कैसे अपनेको जगद्गुरु कहलाते हैँ । उत्तरमें उन्होने कहा जगद्गुरु का अर्थ यह नहिँ कि मैं जगत् का गुरु हुँ । परन्तु जगत् में कहिँ भी कोइ भी व्यक्ति यदि आध्यात्मिक मार्गमें प्रगति के लिये मेरा सहायता चाहता हो, तो मैं उसका मार्गदर्शन करने के लिये वाध्य हुँ । यही मेरा जगद्गुरुत्व है । अपनेको प्रासङ्गिक वनाने का यह एक प्रकृष्ट उदाहरण है ।

वेदके प्रासङ्गिकता पर विचार करने से पूर्व, वेद क्या है, यह जानना चाहिये । ऋक्, यजुः, साम, अथर्व नामसे प्रसिद्ध चार पुस्तकें वेदशास्त्र है । यह वेद नहिँ है । वेद सामान्य है । वेदशास्त्र विशेष है । सामान्य, ज्ञान तथा मुक्ति का विषय है – प्रतिसञ्चर मार्ग है । विशेष, विज्ञान तथा सृष्टि का विषय है - सञ्चर मार्ग है । सत्ता महासामान्य है । इसीलिये ज्ञानको एक एवं अखण्ड कहा जाता है । अनेक से एक के प्रति गमन ज्ञान है । एक से अनेक के प्रति गमन विज्ञान है । सर्व खल्विदं ब्रह्म मुक्तिरूप ज्ञान मार्ग है । ब्रह्मैवेदं सर्वम् सृष्टिरूप विज्ञान मार्ग है । ज्ञान विज्ञान के विना अधुरा है । विज्ञान ज्ञान के विना अधुरा है । दोनों के समन्वय से ब्रह्म का पूर्ण ज्ञान होता है । इसीलिये मुण्डकोपनिषद् 3-2-6 में कहागया -
वेदान्तविज्ञानसुनिश्चितार्थाः सन्यासयोगाद्यतयः शुद्धसत्त्वाः ।
ते ब्रह्मलोकेषु परान्तकाले परामृताः परिमुच्यन्ति सर्वे ।
यहाँ वेदान्तविज्ञान कहागया है – वेदान्तज्ञान नहिँ । ईशोपनिषद् भी उद्घोषणा करते हैं कि –
अन्यदेवाहुर्विद्ययाऽन्यदाहुरविद्यया । इति शुश्रुम धीराणां ये नस्तद्विचचक्षिरे ।।
यही गीताका मूल उपदेश है । इसीलिये भगवानने गीता 7-2 में कहा है कि
ज्ञानं तेऽहं सविज्ञानमिदं वक्ष्याम्यशेषतः । यज्ज्ञात्वा नेह भूयोऽन्यज्ज्ञातव्यमवशिष्यते ।।

ब्रह्मके ज्ञानविज्ञानात्मक होनेसे भारतके मुनि-ऋषि दोनों के उपासक थे । तभी देश उन्नत था । परवर्ति समयमें सायण से लेकर अन्य व्याख्याताओं ने विज्ञानका उपेक्षा कर केवल स्तुति तथा देवपुजन का सहायता से ज्ञान का अनुसरण किया । वह लोग भुलगये कि यज् धातुका अर्थ केवल देवपूजन नहिँ, परन्तु सङ्गतिकरण भी है । अग्निमीळे में ईळे शव्द का अर्थ विकृत करके ईडे नहिँ करना चाहिये । सदागतिशाल तथा सवको प्रेरित करनेवाले अग्नि के लिये ईळे का अर्थ इलँ प्रेर॑णे धातुसे करना चाहिये । यह केवल विज्ञानभाष्यमें सम्भव है ।  अग्निषोमात्मक जगत् श्रुतिवाक्यमें अग्निषोम शव्द अग्नि ओर घी नहिँ है । यज्ञका अर्थ केवल अग्निमें घी डालना नहिँ, प्रकृतिके नियमों का विकल्प वनाकर इच्छित वस्तुका प्राप्त करना भी है । तभी तो श्रुति कहती है कि यद्देवाः अकुर्वन् तत् करवाम । तभी तो भारतीकृष्ण तीर्थ महास्वामीने वैदिक गणित का प्रचार प्रसार किया ।

ज्ञान का आलम्बन विज्ञान है । तभी तो गीता 7-2 में कहागया है कि ज्ञानं तेऽहं सविज्ञानमिदं वक्षाम्यशेषतः। जब से हमारे देशमें विज्ञानका तिरस्कार करके केवल ज्ञान का अनुसरण होने लगा, तभी से हमारा अधःपतन आरम्भ हो गया । न हम ज्ञान का पराकाष्ठा दिखा पाये न विज्ञानका लाभ उठापाये । विज्ञानके लिये हम पाश्चात्य जगतके प्रति निर्भरशील है । उधर पाश्चात्यजगत विज्ञानका अन्धानुसरण करके आज मानसिक अवसाद से ग्रस्त होकर पूर्व कि दिशामें देख रहा है । इसीलिये बृहदारण्यक उपनिषद 4-3-32में कहा गया है कि –
सलिल एको द्रष्टाऽद्वैतो भवत्येष ब्रह्मलोकः .... एषास्य परमा गतिरेषास्य परमा सम्पदेषोस्य परमो लोक एषोस्य परम आनन्द एतस्यैवाऽऽनन्दस्यान्यानि भूतानि मात्रामुपजीवन्ति । ज्ञान तथा विज्ञानके अद्वैत – द्वन्दराहित्य - हि अभ्युदय का कारण है ।

किसी व्यक्ति, वस्तु अथवा भावके प्रति ध्यानदेना अथवा अभिमुख होना प्रसङ्ग है । यह आभिमुख्य किसी व्यक्ति, वस्तु अथवा भावमें अन्वित होकर यावत्कालस्थायी होना उसकी प्रासङ्गिकता है । उससे उस व्यक्ति, वस्तु अथवा भावके प्रति सङ्ग जात होता है । सङ्ग से यथाक्रमे काम, क्रोध, सम्मोह, स्मृतिविभ्रम, आदि का उदय होता है (गीता – 2/62-63)। इसीलिये हमारा आभिमुख्य वदलता रहता है । साथ ही उस व्यक्ति, वस्तु अथवा भावके प्रासङ्गिकता भी वदलता रहता है ।

आधुनिक समाजमें भौतिकविलास सुखभोग नामसे प्रमुख आकर्षणका केन्द्र वना हुआ है । परन्तु यह सुखभोग क्या है? एक का अन्यके उदरमें प्रवेश करना भोग है । इससे जात मनोभावको सुख अथवा दुःख कहते हैं । इसीलिये सुख-दुःख-साक्षात्कार को भोग कहते हैं । परन्तु यह सुख-दुःख है क्या? ख अर्थात् शुन्यमें अध्यारोपित सु भावना को सुख तथा दुः भावना को दुःख कहते हैं । वास्तवमें सुख-दुःख जैसा कुछ होता ही नहिँ । केवल भोग ही होता है । भोग का सम्बन्ध विषय तथा जीव से है, जो क्षर तथा अक्षर से सम्बन्धित है । सुख-दुःख परष्पर विरोधी है । जहाँ सुख हो वहाँ दुःख नहिँ रह सकता । परन्तु हम सवमें यह द्वन्द भाव देखते हैं । यह अज्ञानके कारण होता है । यदि हम उनके स्वरूपको पहचान पायेंगे, तो उसी ज्ञानसे हम द्वन्दरहित अव्यय की प्रति दृष्टि देंगे तथा द्वन्द भावके प्रति उदासीन हो जायेंगे ।

कौटिल्य नीतिसूत्र के अनुसार -
सुखस्य मूलं धर्मः ॥२॥ धर्मस्य मूलमर्थः ॥३॥
इसीलिये आजकल अर्थको धर्म और काम के लिये साधन मानते हैं । परन्तु यह भ्रमात्मक है ।

पुरुषार्थभूत धर्म और काम के लिये अर्थ साधन नहीं हो सकता कारण कामनाको पुरुषार्थ नहीं कह सकते । भ्रम से ही उसके फल को सुख माना जाता है । विषयसम्बन्ध रूप कामनामक पुरुषार्थ अर्थ से संभव होता है । परन्तु उस कामसुखसे विशेष क्या होता है? यदि नारीसंभोग से भिन्न अन्य सुख को भी कामसुख माने, तो भी यह तर्क व्यर्थ है । भ्रम से अतिरिक्त उसमें भी कोई सुख नहीं है । जैसे एक श्रमिक थका हुआ हो और उस पर कोई पैर से ठोकर मारे तो उसे शरीरमर्दनका सुख मिलता है । ऐसे ही भोगेच्छा से आर्त मूर्ख सम्भोग से समझता है कि सुख मिलगया ! यदि यह सुख है, तो भी उसमें अर्थ साधन नहिँ है । जिनके पास कोई अर्थ नहिँ ऐसे श्वान आदि भी वह सुख पाते देखे जाते हैं । पुरुषको जैसे नारी अच्छा लगती है वैसे श्वान को श्वानॊ भी अच्छा लगती है । इसी प्रकार पुष्प-चन्दन आदि के भोग से हुआ सुख भी अर्थहेतुक नहीं है । अर्थशुन्य भ्रमर, कोकिल आदि भी सुगन्ध आघ्राण करते हैं । वह भी स्वादिष्ट रस पान करते हैं । संगीत श्रवण का सुख अर्थ पर निर्भर नहिँ करता । सुन्दर रूप देखकर सुख लेने के लिये भी अर्थ नहिँ चाहिये क्योंकि लोक में निर्धन पुरुष भी सभा आदि में वारनारीयोँ को देख लेते हैं और अन्य युवतियों को भी वे निःसंकोच देख पाते हैं । कोमलस्पर्श पाने के लिये भी अर्थ जरूरी नहीं है । मख्खी आदि जन्तु भी अत्यन्त कोमल पदार्थ स्पर्श कर लेते हैं। वे तो उन सुन्दरीयों के भी मुखों का स्पर्श कर लेते हैं जिन्हें अन्य धनीक भी देख नहीं सकते । जिसके पास हर तरह का पार्यप्त अर्थ है वह भी अर्थ से सारा ही विषयसुख नहीँ पा सकता परन्तु कुछ सुख तो निर्धन भी पा ही लेता है । इस प्रकार अर्थ कामसुख का साधन नहीं ।

परलोक में सुख देने वाला धर्म भी केवल अर्थ से होता ही हो यह संसार में नियमित रूप से देखा नहीं जाता । प्राचीन मुनि-ऋषि जो हमेशा भूख से कमजोर रहते थे और ऐसे निर्धन बहुत से गृहस्थ स्वर्ग गये हैं तथा बहुत धनीक भी प्रायः प्रमादी होने से, नरक गये हैं, जा रहे हैं और जाते रहेंगे । इसलिये स्वर्ग अर्थ से ही मिलता हो यह बात नहीं । अर्थ के बिना अग्निष्टोम आदि यज्ञ सम्पन्न नहीं किये जा सकते । परन्तु उनका फल जो स्वर्ग, वह तो अर्थ के बिना भी मिल सकता है, क्योंकि स्वर्ग दिलाने वाले अनेक प्रकार के साधन हैं । इस तरह अर्थ ही धर्म का निश्चित उपाय हो, यह मान नहीं सकते ।

कुछ लोग अर्थ को मोक्ष के प्राप्तिके हेतु इसीलिये कहते हैं कि उससे यागादि किये जाते हैं । जब यागादि ही मोक्षप्रद नहीं हैं, तो अर्थ मोक्षोपाय नहीं हो सकता ! ज्ञानमात्र से प्राप्य अमरता के लिये ये अग्निष्टोमादि किसी भी प्रकार से साधन नहीं हैं । यह केवल स्वर्ग दिला सकते हैं । अतः तप इत्यादि के समान ही हैं । इसलिये अर्थ के कारण अग्निष्टोम आदि भले ही हों , अमरता अथवा मोक्षोपाय का वह कारण नहिँ हो सकते।

आत्मा की परमानन्दरूपता अन्वय-व्यतिरेक से भी समझा जा सकता है ।  जहाँ आत्मा का सम्बन्ध है वहाँ प्रियता अवश्य होता है। जहाँ आत्मसम्बन्ध नहीं वहाँ प्रियता भी नहीं होती । एक-अपर के शरीरों के प्रति जो अत्यन्त प्रेम है वह किसी भी प्रकार से अन्य के उपकार के लिये नहीं है । परन्तु अपने ही उपकार के लिये है । स्त्री अपनी प्रयोजन के लिये पति से प्रेम करती है । पतिको अपनी प्रयोजन के लिये पत्नी प्रिया होती है । अपने लिये सुख चाहती नारी कामाग्नि के सन्ताप से और अन्न वस्त्र आदि पाने के लिये पति से प्रेम करती है । पति यदि पत्नी के प्रतिकूल हो, तो प्रेम नहीं हो पाता । सामान्य अनुकूलता रखने पर भी यदि पति किसी अन्य नारी में आसक्त हो तो पत्नी को वह किसी अवस्था में प्रिया नहीं होती । अथवा अन्य किसी व्यसन में उसका ध्यान लगा रहता हो, तो भी पत्नी को वह प्रिय नहीं होता । इसी प्रकार पति जो पत्नी से प्रेम करता है वह इसीलिये कि वह कामुक होता है और उसे भोजन आदि सहज भावसे मिल जाता है । यदि ऐसा न हो तो पत्नी उसे कभी प्रिय नहीं होती । जो पत्नी सुरतादि में अपने पति के प्रतिकूल रहे उस पर किसी तरह प्रेम रखने वाला पति संसार में देखा नहीं जाता । अतः यह आत्मा ही प्रिय है । स्त्री-पुरुषों को सदा सर्वाधिक प्रिय यह स्वप्रकाश सदानन्द आत्मा ही है ।

जैसे पति-पत्नी, वैसे ही पुत्र, धन, गवादि, ब्राह्मण-क्षत्रिय आदि जातियाँ, भूः आदि लोक, देवता, वेद, चर-अचर प्राणी - यह जो सारा ही जगत् है वह सब तभी प्रिय होते है जब अपने को सुख देते हों । जो अपने को सुख न दे, वह कभी प्रिय नहीं होता । कदाचित् जो कोइ प्रतिकूल व्यक्ति पर भी प्रेम करता है, तो वह मोहवश ऐसा करता है । वहाँ भी यदि उस प्रेम से स्वयं को संतोष मिलता हो, तभी प्रेम रहता है । पुत्र आदि जो प्रिय रूप से सब को अनुभव में आते है वे भी प्रतिकूल हो जायें तो प्रिय नहीं रहते । अतः वे अपने लिये ही प्रिय होते हैं । शुकदेव जी कहते हैं: जो समस्त कार्योँ को छोड़ कर सम्यक् प्रकार से शराणागतवत्सल भगवान् की शरण में प्राप्त होता है । वह देवऋण, ऋषिऋण, कुटुम्बी जन और पितृऋण - इन किसी का भी सेवक और ऋणी नहीं रहता । (श्रीमद्भागवत 11/5/41)

योगास्त्रयं मया प्रोक्ता नृणां श्रेयो विधत्सया । ज्ञानं कर्म च भक्तिश्च नोपायोऽन्योऽस्ति कुत्रचित् ॥ (श्रीमद्भागवत)
मनुष्य के कल्याण के लिये ज्ञानयोग, कर्मयोग और भक्तियोग - इन तीनों उपायों ही है । इनके अतिरिक्त, मोक्ष प्राप्ति का और कोई उपाय नहीं है । शरणागति मार्ग में इन तीनों के तात्पर्य स्वतः आ जाते हैं । अतः मुमुक्षु का इस एक ही जन्म में कल्याण हो जाता है , यथा – 
भक्तिः परेषानुभवो विरक्तिरन्यत्र चैष त्रिक एककालः ।
प्रपद्ममानस्य यथाऽश्नतः स्युस्तुष्टिः पुष्टिः क्षदपायोऽनुघासम् ॥
इत्यच्युताध्रिं भजतोऽनुवृत्त्या भक्तिर्विरक्तिर्भगवत्प्रबोधः ।
भवन्ति वै भागवतस्य राजंस्ततः परां शान्तिमुपैति साक्षात् ॥
भगवान् के शरणागतों के हृदय में भगवान् की भक्ति , उनके परात्पर स्वरूप का अनुभवात्मक ज्ञान और अन्य वस्तुओं से वैराग्य ये ती तीनों एक ही समय में अर्थात् साथ - साथ उत्पन्न होते हैं । जिस प्रकार भोजन करने वाले को उसके प्रत्येक ग्रास अर्थात् कौर के साथ - साथ ही तुष्टि , पुष्टि और क्षुधा निवृत्ति तीनों हो जाती है , उसी प्रकार हे राजन् ! भगवान् श्री अच्युत के चरण कमल का निरन्तर भजन करते करते भक्त को भक्ति , विरक्ति अर्थात कर्मयोग का फल और भगवान् के स्वरूप की स्फूर्ति अर्थात् अपरोक्ष ज्ञान ये तीनों अवश्य प्राप्त होती है और फिर वह अर्थात् मुमुक्षु साक्षात् परम शान्ति का अनुभव करने लगता है यह कवि मुनीश्वर ने राजा जनक से कहा है ।

देव, ऋषि तथा पितृ – इन तीनों के मूल परमात्मा ही हैं । अतः उन्हीं की शरण होने से मुमुक्षु सभी से उऋण हो जाता है । यथा तरोर्मूलनिषेचनेन तृप्यन्ति तत्स्कन्धभुजोपशाखाः ।
प्राणोपहाराच्च यथेन्द्रियाणां तथैव सर्वाहणमच्युतेज्या ॥ { श्रीमद्भागवत पुराण 4 / 31 / 14 }
अर्थात् जैसे जड़ के सींचने से वृक्ष के अंग एवं प्राण के तृप्त होने से इन्दियां सचेत होती है , वैसे ही श्रीहऱि का पूजन करने से सभी का पूजन हो जाता है , क्योंकि भगवान् ही सबके आत्मा हैं । अतः उन्हें आत्मा सर्म्पण कर तृप्त करने पर सबकी तृप्ति हो जाती है।

अतः हमें मोक्ष मार्गके साथ साथ विज्ञानमार्ग को भी अपनाना चाहिये । तथा पाश्चात्य जगतको भी मोक्ष मार्गके उपदेश करते रहना चाहिये । वेदके जो स्तुति तथा आशिष है, वह विज्ञानमूलक है । बृहद्देवता में इनका अर्थ करते हुये शौनक महर्षि ने कहा –
स्तुतिस्तु नाम्ना रूपेण कर्मणा बान्धवेन च । स्वर्गायुर्धनपुत्रादैर् अर्थैराशीस्तु कथ्यते । ...
स्तुवद्भिर्वा ब्रुवद्भिर्वा ऋषिभिस्तत्त्वदर्शिभिः । भवत्युभयमेवोक्तम् उभयं ह्यर्थतः समम् ।।
यहाँ नाम्ना रूपेण कर्मणा बान्धवेन से Classification and nomenclature, physical characteristics, chemical properties and interactive potential विवक्षित है । अतः वेद विज्ञानमूलक है ।