Friday, July 18, 2014

ON THE SCIENCE OF DREAMS



 ON THE SCIENCE OF DREAMS

Dreaming is generally thought of as the spontaneous self activation of the brain during sleep. But the faculty of consciousness that dreams is different from the brain, as unlike the brain, it cannot be physically seen, photographed or clinically diagnosed. Brain is body matter powered by the heart and lungs pumping blood which continues even in deep sleep, making it always active. Even after the heart stops, the brain may not be dead immediately. Hence this definition of dream may be misleading. Further, the spontaneity implies a trigger. Without this trigger, the brain cannot self activate. This trigger for the heart and lungs (also brain) is set at conception. For perception, the external stimuli carried by the neurons to the brain are the trigger.

At any moment, our sense organs are bombarded by a multitude of stimuli. But only one of them is given a clear channel at any instant to go up to the thalamus and then to the cerebral cortex, so that like photographic frames, we perceive one discrete frame at every instant, but due to the high speed of their reception, mix it up so that it appears as continuous. This happens due to an active transport system against concentration gradient with input of energy. Unlike the sensory apparatuses that are subject specific, the transport system in the opposite direction within the body happens for all types of sensory impulses. The agency that determines this subject neutral channel of active transport is called mind. Without this transport system, we cannot dream, dreams are based on thought and thought is the inertia of mind. It follows mechanical rules.

While mind facilitates the passage of impulse, the interpretation of the state of superposition of various thoughts in memory is done by the intellect, which is responsible for cognition. Hence even after the breath stops, the person may not be brain dead. The difference between perception and cognition is that during perception mediated by mind, we search the memory for alternatives for matching. During cognition mediated by intellect (the ‘I’ part in the perception “I know….”), we zero in on one content. Thus, we have to consider intellect that cognizes separately from mind, which is only the transporting agency.

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language defines mind as: “The collective conscious and unconscious processes in a sentient organism that direct and influence mental and physical behavior. But this definition does not explain what are conscious and unconscious processes and how the mind directs these. Further, it is difficult to apply in the context of sociology where we speak of the mental qualities of a group or population (the nation’s mind, group mind, team spirit). It is also difficult to apply in the context of religion, where mind and spirit are associated with transcendental concepts such as the way of life including immortal soul, the world mind, etc. In our definition, since memory is most important for processing stimulus and mind is only the transport system, these things are easily explained.

Dreams can be analyzed from various perspectives like psychological, physio-chemical, emotional, cognitive potential, paranormal, etc. Different aspects are discussed in different texts. For example, one text classifies dreams into seven categories: those related to 1) objects seen earlier, 2) heard earlier, 3) experienced earlier, 4) objects of desire, or 5) fantasies. These five types of dreams are meaningless. The other two types are related to 6) extra-sensory perceptions of signals leading to possible future events and 7) physical discomfiture including diseases or impending diseases. The last two types are meaningful. The above has been further classified into different categories. The methods of interpreting the last two categories of dreams have also been discussed elaborately.

Dreams appear as the internal faculties, i.e., the various functions of the mind and intellect, are activated without an external stimulus through the sense organs, as in the wakeful state. This frees the faculty of consciousness from the restraints imposed by the external physical world. For example, we have seen horses and we have seen flights or birds fly. We can combine both concepts to dream of flying horses, which are physically impossible. But we cannot dream of something which is not stored in our memory. The Jungian Dreaming of the ‘collective unconscious’, which are not so much a personal message to the dreamer, but rather a more universal message that becomes less personal to the dreamer and more relevant to the human collective, can be explained only through the thought mechanism.

Any transport system follows the laws of motion that are further governed by the fundamental forces of Nature, which are five in number including radioactive disintegration. They have macro equivalents also. Mind also follows these rules. Lucid dreaming is caused by the equivalent of the weak force, which unites the wakeful state with the dream state. Since both have different causes, the mind has to oscillate between both the states rapidly. But the oscillation is so fast that it appears as two distinct states.

We sleep only when our body exhausts energy and needs to recuperate it like many creatures hibernate. Sleep can be categorized into two types: perception enabled (dream or REM sleep) and perception disabled (deep sleep). In the first case, the mind is receiving inputs/impulses from the agencies of sensory perception and memory, but the later are not receiving outside impulse. In the second case, mind is switched off from the agencies of sensory perception – thus, no perception. Since these are cognitive functions, a brief discussion on perception and consciousness is necessary to remove all confusion. Also, we must prove the transport function and mechanism of mind.

How do we handle the vast sensory inputs impinging on us? The provision of specialized sensory windows specifically geared to receive specific ranges and categories of sensory inputs, the incorporation of directing channels, the provision of load restricting governors in the brain, and the existence of dynamic mechanisms for attention, thresholds and signal detection, have different roles to play. The built-in governors in the brain to prevent a break down due to load (excess or impoverishment) cause us to sleep. Dream is associated with sleep. Lucid dream hampers the mechanism of the built-in governors. Thus, its regular practice is bound to have long term effects of a break down.

While considering the above fact, we must remember that whatever be the varieties of energies that impinge on the body, the sense organs convert all of them into electro-chemical codes, which get processed and then decoded. When we talk of electro-part, we must consider its complement magneto-part. Similarly, the theory of transition states of chemical reaction stipulates a certain temperature threshold for the chemical reaction to take place. Both have a commonality in temperature divide.

The first experience of decoding of the signals is the sensory impression is an impression in isolation. This is uni-modal and the simplest of the transactions that occur between our sensory modes and the observable. A sensation is a combination of such sensory impressions and is multi-modal. Since measurement is a process of comparison between similars, perception occurs when sensation is accompanied by an interpretation with reference to what is already experienced and stored in memory. Measurement is done at a time t, when the result is frozen for use at other times t’, t’’, etc, even though the observed evolves in time. As experience becomes less immediate and more remote, and as the processes of inference increase, cognition enters the picture. Thinking and knowing become predominately operative.

Consciousness is a physical phenomenon and beyond. But mathematics including Tononi’s model, cannot explain conscious actions. The sense organs always reach out to the incoming impulse, whether sound, electromagnetic radiation, or smell, taste, touch. Over the years, views on the mechanism of perception of sound – how the ear perceives the tonality of sound and the frequency range of auditory perception - have changed. There is a reason why the human pinna is not asymmetrical and folded. Experiments by Hero Wit (Spectra of cochlear acoustic emissions – Kemp echos – Journal of Acoust. Soc. Am. 1981) showed the emission of a continual sound from healthy human ears in the range of 1 to 2 kHz. This implies that the ear sends out a reference wave and interacts with the incoming wave to produce an acoustic hologram. This is facilitated by the unique structure of the human pinna (Hugo Zuccarelli, New Scientist, 10th November 1983 p-438).  Similarly, our eyes send out a reference wave to electromagnetic radiation emanating out of the object (and not the object which emits these radiation). The form we see is not the same as the object we touch and vice versa. Because when we touch, we cut down the radiation and touch the mass that emits it. The same goes for taste and smell.

At any moment, our sense organs are bombarded by a multitude of stimuli. But only one of them is given a clear channel at any instant to go up to the thalamus and then to the cerebral cortex, so that like photographic frames, we perceive one discrete frame at every instant, but due to the high speed of their reception, mix it up so that it appears as continuous. This happens due to an active transport system against concentration gradient with input of energy like the sodium-potassium pump, which moves the two ions in opposite directions across the plasma membrane through break down of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The concentrations of the two ions on both sides of the cell membrane are interdependent, suggesting that the same carrier transports both ions. Similarly, the same carrier transports the external stimuli in the opposite direction to the cerebral cortex. This carrier is the mind.

In the mechanism of perception, each sense organ perceives different kind of impulses related to the fundamental forces of Nature. Eyes see form by measuring (comparing) the electromagnetic field set up by the object with that of the electrons in our cornea, which is the unit. Thus, we cannot see in total darkness because there is nothing comparable to this unit. Tongue perceives the chemical composition when the object is dissolved in the mouth, which is macro equivalent of the weak nuclear interaction that leads to changing chemistry. Nose perceives the distinguishing characteristics of the mass of the object, when the finer parts of an object are brought in close contact with the smell buds, which is macro equivalent of the strong nuclear interaction. Skin perceives heat and cold when they are in motion leaving the body that is macro equivalent of the radioactive disintegration. Ears hear sound waves that come near or recede from us or stay at a fixed distance (all signifying the relation between two bodies) that is macro equivalent of the gravitational interaction.

Individually the perception has no meaning. For example, what we see is the radiation emanating from out of the body and not the body proper. What we touch is the state of the mass that emits radiation and not the radiation it emits. Since eyes cannot touch or hand cannot see, individually they cannot describe the body fully. They become information and acquire meaning only when they are pooled and stable in our memory. In the lower animals, all the sense organs are not fully developed. Hence their capacity to function in tandem is limited. Thus, they only respond to situations based on memory. In human beings, the sense organs are fully developed. Hence they not only respond to situations, but also plan future strategies. This is the difference between them.

Since all these sensory perceptions are nothing but measurement of the objects in space in time, they are not ghostly, but real. Measurement implies the existence of the Conscious Agent who does the measurement of an object in space in time using an apparatus (of sensory perception). The result of measurement is information about the physical Cosmos of Atoms and organic matter stored for future use. Thus, they are related. All perceptions require energy to reveal the object and take the reading. In fact, energy connects both. But information or perception is not energy, but stored stable data.

The Cosmos appears to be a single field for two reasons: First, as the background structure (a General Field of Cosmae), it is common to all. Secondly, perception of information is common to all. The content of all perceptions is: “I know…..”. This part is common in all perceptions, though the object of perception change. Without this commonality, there cannot be communication. What we express must be understood by others exactly as the same. The gaps are not in the field, but in the non-linear distribution of mass and energy that seem to violate the integrity of the common description (density) and not that of the single field.

We hold that mind (Information-Assumption), which is also an instrument of perception, functions mechanically and thought is the inertia of mind. Once we receive an external impulse, our mind compares it with all stored similar or related impulses due to inertia that we call as the train of thought. Like inertia of motion is destroyed due to air friction, gravitational attraction or impact with other bodies, thought is destroyed by evaluating the impulse with all stored memory (knowing whatever is possible), getting the object of desire or pain that distracts our attention.

Perception is the processing by a conscious agent of the result of measurements of different but related fields of something with some data stored in memory to convey a combined form “it is like that”, where “it” refers to an object (constituted of bits) and “that” refers to a concept signified by the object (self-contained representation or information). Measurement returns restricted information related to only one field at a time. To understand all aspects, we have to ‘integrate’ these aspects.

In communication technology, the mixing is done through data, text, spread-sheets, pictures, voice and video. Data are discretely defined fields. What the user sees is controlled by software - a collection of computer programs. What the hardware sees is bytes and bits. In perception, these tasks are done in the brain. Data are the response of our sense organs to individual external stimuli – e.m. fields by eye, etc. Text is the excitation of the neural network that carries these impulses to the brain. Spreadsheets are the excitation of the neural network in specific regions of the brain. Pictures are the inertia of motion generated in memory (thought) after a fresh impulse, linking related past experiences. Voice is the disturbance created due to the disharmony between the present thought and the stored image (this or that, yes or no). Video is the net response that emerges out of such integration. This is ego. Hardware includes the neural network. Bytes and bits are the changing interactions of the sense organs (string) with their respective fields generated by the objects evolving in time. Software is the operations of mind. Split personality is a malfunction of the mechanism for mixing the fresh impulse with stored memory.

All of these are digital, but none of these are conscious. They act mechanically according to the laws of conservation, inertia, language, command and control like the hardware and software of the computer, where the brain acts like the CPU. The computer can be operated with electric energy. The heart provides this energy through pumping of not only blood, but also oxygen. Consciousness (the ‘I’ part) is the operator, which is beyond all these. It not only switches on the electricity and the computer, but also perceives and uses the information. Like space and time, it is infinite – hence present everywhere – not outside the biological world.

The consciousness of a person is detected only as whether he/she is alive or dead or at best whether he/she is awake or sleeping. Beyond this, whatever is detected is his/her emotions expressed verbally or through non-verbal communication. In the wakeful state, the sense organs receive impulse from the physical world, which are bound by the laws of physics. Like a sculptor making a die, a mirror image of the impulse is carried by the sense organs. The neurons do not interact with the external world, but carry the mirror image from the sense organs to appropriate regions of the brain to make an imprint there giving the proper image. Hence they are not bound by the laws of the physical world. During dream, the link from the external world is cut off, the neurons are still active. Thus, the ego can integrate various stored images in a dream without any constraint. If we have earlier seen horses and some birds flying, we can dream of flying horses or ourselves flying, which is not possible in wakeful state. These two states are causal states. During deep sleep, the neurons cease to act. Though the ego remains active in deep sleep (we get up if someone calls us), it cannot act on its own till some impulse is received by it as its only role is integration of impulses. But consciousness remains the observer as long as the energy circulating system is active in the body.

Since consciousness is infinite, it cannot be enlarged. Perception by the ego or memory can be enlarged. The first time we perceive, we do not cognize it properly, but it gets registered in our memory. The next time we perceive it, we cognize it as “It is like that”.  Color blindness is due to defect in our sensory organs either individually or collectively in some geographical location. Sub-conscious learning and subconscious memory are like ordinary memory, where there is a delay in retrieval of the response to the received impulse. Freewill is not an illusion. The basic mechanism of action is as follows: If we feel a deficit of or a necessity for something, and from our memory, if we could find a way to fulfill our requirement, then we have a desire to do that. The appropriate part of our brain issues necessary command to the necessary body parts to act accordingly. When our knowledge is total, our action appears as freewill. Otherwise, we act as if in doubt. It is true that the brain acts as a quantum computer, but it is still an inert body part, as there is no difference between the brain of a person just before and after death. Thus, brain is not conscious.

In lucid dreaming, this process is hampered with attendant consequences. These may appear as affecting thought, perception, emotion, will, memory, and imagination, etc. Further, thought is generated due to previous knowledge, repeated efforts, indulgence, and unusual sporadic experience. By the practice of lucid dreaming, mind is naturally attracted towards it. Thus, the ability to judge reality in all its aspects is seriously restricted making one an expert in a limited field like a frog in the well. Such people with find it difficult to adjust in the society. We treat the body including the brain, the neural network and the mind as inert and go beyond it. Apparently, there is nothing wrong in experimenting with lucid dreams. But it does affect the personality in the long run. Hence the effect will not be evident immediately. In this connection, we have briefly discussed about sleep in our previous post. You can look into the following aspects.

During lucid dream, if research (which is a function of wakeful state as it involves examining objects present physically or as concepts in memory) is conducted, there is a continuous transformation between the unimodal and multimodal sensory impressions. This draws more energy necessitating more rest, which is hampered by the process of lucid dream. Thus, this has double impact. Lucid dreams can be dangerous.

Wednesday, March 19, 2014

GRAVITY – A CONCEPTUAL REVIEW



                                    GRAVITY - A CONCEPTUAL REVIEW.

ABSTRACT:

          Everyone knows what gravity does. But no one knows what gravity is! Unlike mass, forces are inferred through their interaction with other bodies. Each application of force generates an entangled couple of equal and opposite interactions that generate impedance and stress in the medium. Within any system, this creates four entangled sets of proximity-distance variables between the bodies (proximity-proximity, proximity-distance, distance-distance, and distance-proximity). These are the four fundamental forces of Nature: strong, two types of weak interactions, and electromagnetic interactions respectively. These are confined intra-body variables that produce all particles in different combinations and determine dimension. Gravity is the all pervading force that acts on each body linearly. Due to differential mass, the resultant nonlinear movement appears as an inter-body force.

INTRODUCTION:

          This is a conceptual review. Whether the concept should start with the language of mathematics? The validity of a physical statement rests on its correspondence to reality. The validity of a mathematical statement rests on its logical consistency. There can be physical theories without first writing down the equations. For example, there is no equation for the Observer. Yet, it is universally accepted in physics. Our thoughts, emotions and expressions are linguistic - not mathematical. Newton did not write the equations first. Mathematics is unavoidable only when we verify the validity of a concept – how much the system changes when a parameter is changed. It does not explain the what, why, when, where and with whom, about the system. These are the subject matters of physics. Physics explains what gravity is. Mathematics explains what gravity does. The left-hand side of all equations represents freewill, as we are free to choose the parameters. The right hand side represents determinism as once any or all parameters are changed, the right-hand side changes deterministically. The equality or inequality sign prescribes the special conditions (such as a temperature threshold in chemical reactions) or constants (G in the law of gravitation) that need to be overtaken before starting the reaction and getting deterministic results. Arbitrary changes to or exchanges of parameters between the two sides of the equations are not permitted, though often wrongly resorted to in mathematical physics.

          Modern science is built incrementally over earlier “established theories”. Sometimes this process stretches the original theory too far to breaking point. Sometimes fiction dominates over physical concepts. For example, ocular perception of form is possible only with electromagnetic radiation, where the electric field and the magnetic fields move perpendicular to each other and both move perpendicular to their direction of motion. Hence dimension, which is the perception of differentiation between the internal structural space and external relational space of any object - thus ocular perception of form - is described by three mutually perpendicular axes that are invariant under mutual transformation. Yet, even after a century of failure to find extra-dimensions, physicists are reluctant to discard the fiction perpetuated by the novel FLAT LANDS. Those who superstitiously believe that the “established theories” are sacrosanct; need not read further.

          Newton codified the then available knowledge into a mathematical format to show how the body moves under gravitation, when any of the parameters like mass or distance was changed. Subject to limitations of precision measurement, it worked well. But his physics; i.e., what, why, when, and with whom, about the system; lacked precision. He treated the apple and the Earth as fixed, and explained the falling of the apple due to gravity. Just before the fall, the apple had the same mass and distance – hence the same force of gravity. It did not fall because it was bound to its stem by a force that surpassed a threshold signified by the gravitational constant G that permeated the field between them (the continuum). When this bond weakened (due to ripening) to below this threshold, it fell due to the change in density gradient (G has units in mass and distance scales over time). It rested on Earth, because the density gradient of the continuum between the contact point and centers of both the apple and the Earth was much above this threshold.

          Einstein also treated the apple and the Earth as fixed, but explained the falling apple due to curvature of the space between them that brought them near. He explained the separation of the apple and its stem by an equal and opposite curvature of space. His explanation of gravity involved two complementary localities – that between the apple and the Earth and the apple and its stem. The changes in curvature of space during that instant (spacetime) in these localities balanced each other due to the equivalence principle (EP). But unlike the Newtonian theory, it does not explain the universal threshold limit G, though he used it in his equations. Now let us examine the EP and GR, because after the recent Black Hole Information Paradox controversy, it has become extremely necessary to either conform or refute these concepts.

EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE REVISITED:

The cornerstone of GR is the principle of equivalence of inertial and gravitational masses: mi = mG. The EP does not flow from any mathematics. No one has given any mathematical reason (like a consistency constraint) why all matter fields should couple universally to gravity. This is not the case for the other fundamental forces or the Higgs field (which is why different particles have different masses. Higgs field is specific as to which particle couples to it. Gravity is a universal field - an all pervading medium. Every particle in the universe, whether massive or not, couples to it the same way). If F=ma and universal free fall for all mass types hold, F ≈ g ≈ a holds. It can be explained only if gravity acts like a river current propelling all objects uniformly, but differentially based on their mass, causing differential local density gradients. The galactic and star systems are like a “free vortex” arising out of conflicting currents in which the tangential velocity ‘v’ increases as the center line is approached, so that the angular momentum ‘rmv’ is constant.

The EP has been generally accepted without much questioning. Actually GR assumes general covariance and the equivalence of the two masses follows. General covariance means invariance under diffeomorphisms. This implies the EP. This implies that gravitational and inertial masses are equal. It is not a first principle of physics, but merely an ad hoc metaphysical concept designed to induce the uninitiated to imagine that gravity has magical non-local powers of infinite reach. The appeal to believe in such a miraculous form of gravity is very strong. Virtually everyone accepts EP as an article of faith even though it has never been positively verified directly by either experimental or observational physics. All indirect experiments show that the equivalence or otherwise of gravitational and inertial masses is only one of description.

No one knows why there should be two or more mass terms. In principle there is no reason why mi = mG: why should the gravitational charge and the inertial mass be equal? The EP states that the effect of gravity does not depend on the nature or internal structure of a body. The experiments of Galileo, who dropped balls of different masses from the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa, were conformed in 1971, when Apollo 15 Commander Dave Scott performed a similar experiment. A heavy object (a 1.32 kg aluminum geological hammer) and a light object (a 0.03-kg falcon feather) were released simultaneously from the same height (approximately 1.6 m) and were allowed to fall to the surface. Within the accuracy of the simultaneous release, the objects were observed to undergo the same acceleration and simultaneously strike the lunar surface. Because they were essentially in near vacuum, there was no air resistance and the feather fell at the same rate as the hammer proving, all objects released together fall at the same rate regardless of their mass. Thus, like c, the acceleration in free space should not be related to mass. This independence of acceleration from mass should be inbuilt in the gravitational equation. But the values of G (constant – though it might be changing: doi/10.1103/ PhysRevLett.111.101102) and g (variable), depend on mass, also like a steamer powered by an engine that is driven due to free will.

The underlying gauge symmetries that describe the fundamental interactions require the fundamental fields to be massless. The Higgs mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking appears in the equation of motion of the field particle, i.e., mi (in the classical limit). If we put the particle in a gravitational field, then it will “feel a force” given by the “gravitational charge” times the gravitational field. This appears as two masses “mG” and “mi”, though there is only one mass term associated with each field. The inertial mass is said to measure the “inertia”, while the gravitational mass is the coupling strength to the universal gravitational field. The gravitational mass plays the same role as the electric charge for electromagnetic interactions, the color charge for strong interactions and the particle flavor for weak interactions.

Inertial mass mi is said to be the mass in Newton’s law F=mia. Gravitational mass mg is said to be the coupling strength in the Newton’s law of gravitation: FG = (gm1m2/r2) x mG.
Thus: mia = FG = (gm1m2/r2) x mG.
The quantity gm1m2/r2 is the “gravitational field” (say G) and mG is the “gravitational charge”, so that one can write: F x g = mG x G, just like we write: mi x a = q x E for the electric field. This has nothing to do with the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism.

The gravitational mass mg is said to produce and respond to gravitational fields. It is said to supply the mass factor in the inverse square law of gravitation: F=Gm1m2/r2. The inertial mass mi is said to supply the mass factor in Newton’s 2nd Law: F=ma. If gravitation is proportional to g, say F=kg (because the weight of a particle depends on its gravitational mass, i.e. mg), and acceleration is given by a, then according to Newton’s law, ma=kg. Since according to GR, g=a, combining both we get m=k. Here m is the so-called “inertial mass” and k is the “gravitational mass”. Acceleration due to gravity g has the same value for all bodies placed at the same height – hence a function of the distance from the center of Earth. Some think that the EP implies that a test particle travels along a geodesic in the background space-time. This is due to the “swirl” in the CMB due to B-mode polarization pattern. EP assumes that in all locally Lorentz (inertial) frames, the laws of Special Relativity (SR) must hold. From this, it is concluded that only the geometric structure of spacetime can define the paths of free bodies. If x is a particle’s world-line, parameterized by proper time, T is its tangent vector, D denotes covariant differentiation along the world-line, and R is the Ricci tensor, then: D(T) = 0 and D(T)=R(T) are both tensorial; hence generally covariant. But only one of them describes a geodesic in a general curved space-time.

It is believed that Gravity does not couple to the “gravitational mass” but rather to the Ricci Tensor, which works only if space-time is flat. Ricci Tensor does not provide a full description in more than three dimensions. Schwarzschild equation for black holes, where space-time is extremely curved, uses the Riemann Tensor. Using Riemann tensor, instead of Ricci tensor to calculate energy momentum tensor in 3+1 dimensions would not lead to any meaningful results, though in most cases, the Riemann Tensor is needed before one can determine the Ricci Tensor. Thus, there is really no relation between “gravitational mass” and “inertial mass”, except in Newtonian physics. This is why photons (with zero inertial mass) are affected by gravity. Only manipulations of the Standard Model (SM) to include classical gravity (field theory in curved spacetime) leads to effects like Hawking radiation and the Unrih effect. This is where gravitation and the SM can hypothetically meet.

Gravitation and GR are not included in the SM. Hence the SM really cannot say anything about gravitational mass. If any theory conclusively unifies gravitation with the SM, it may be able to explain the equivalence of the inertial mass and the gravitational mass. The Higgs Boson and the Higgs fields are predictions of the SM which incorporates SR. The Higgs mechanism is intended to explain the “rest mass” of fundamental particles such as quarks and electrons that constitute only about 4.9 % of the total theorized mass of the universe. This rest mass of fundamental particles comprises only a tiny fraction (~1%) of the “rest mass” of atoms. Most of the invariant mass of protons and neutrons is the product of quark kinetic energy confinement when bound by the strong interaction mediated by gluons. It is not directly the result of the Higgs mechanism. However, since SR is part of the SM and since e = mc2, the SM may be said to imply that rest mass from the Higgs mechanism and binding energy from the color force will both contribute equivalently to inertial rest mass of all particles. It is believed that the Higgs field obeys ordinary theory of GR. It means that equivalence of inertial and gravitational masses takes place. The mass-energy of the universe that Dark Energy is said to represent has been reduced from 72.8% to 68.3%. At the same time Dark Matter has been increased from 22.7% to 26.8%. This means the percentage of ordinary matter has gone up from 4.5% to 4.9%. The constituent particles of these mysterious fields most likely do not couple to Higgs field at all. Then, was it imprecise calculation or is something changing?

EQUIVALENT OR DIFFERENT?

If we think of gravitational and inertial masses outside the context of a generally covariant theory, then there is still no evidence that they are equal. They may differ by an arbitrary factor which may be absorbed into G or by a variable G. The equivalence of the inertial and gravitational masses has been proved indirectly by the Eötvös experiment and many later experiments. An analysis of the experiments of Eötvös about the ratio of gravitational to kinetic mass of a few substances by some scientists yields the result that this ratio for the hydrogen atom, and for the binding energies are equal to that for the neutron with a precision of one part in at least 5.105, and 104 respectively. No conclusion can be drawn about these ratios for the proton and the electron separately. The Eöt-Wash experiment of University of Washington tried to measure the difference in the two masses indirectly by considering “charge/mass” ratios. They have obtained a result, which can be summarized as: (mG/mi) -1≤ 10-13.

Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) experiment used to test for 35 years the EP with the moon, earth and sun being the test-masses to determine whether, in accordance with the Einstein EP, these two celestial bodies are falling toward the Sun at the same rate, despite their different masses, compositions, and gravitational self-energies. Analyses of precision laser ranges to the Moon continue to provide increasingly stringent limits on any violation of the equivalence principle. Current LLR solutions give Δ(mG/mi)EP=(-1.0±1.4)×10-13 for any possible inequality in Δ(mG/mi) - the ratios of the gravitational and inertial masses for the Earth and Moon. This result, in combination with laboratory experiments on the weak EP, yields a strong equivalence principle (SEP) test of: Δ(mG/mi)SEP = (-2.0 ± 2.0) × 10-13.

Also, the corresponding SEP violation parameter η is (4.4±4.5)×10-4, where η=4β-γ-3 and both β and γ are post-Newtonian parameters. Using the Cassini γ, the η result yields β-1 = (1.2±1.1)×10-4. The geodetic precession test, expressed as a relative deviation from general relativity, is: Kgp=-0.0019±0.0064. The time variation in the gravitational constant results in G˙/G=(4±9)×10-13yr-1. Consequently there is no evidence for local (1AU) scale expansion of the solar system. (DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett. 93.261101). Apart from the technical problems in these indirect methods and the assumed values of various parameters - including latest precisely measured value of G - continuing the uncertainty, the measured result that the Moon is moving away from the Earth at the rate of about 3.8 centimeters higher in its orbit each year shows that these indirect results cannot be fully relied upon.

The indirect methods to prove equivalence or otherwise; are questionable. It has been accepted as given that ma=mg. This equivalence is faulty because the description: F=ma is faulty. Once a force is applied to move a body along any axis and the body moves, the force ceases to act on the body and the body moves at constant velocity v’ due to inertia (assuming no other forces are present). The relation between the original velocity v (zero if the body is at rest) and v’ is the rate of change. To accelerate the body further, we need another force to be applied to the body. Without such a new force, the body cannot be accelerated. What is this new force and from where it comes? If any other force acts, then it has to be introduced into the equation. Further, the new force will change the velocity v’ to v’’ – an action chain like continuous change in gravity due to changing distance). Acceleration or “rate of change of the rate of change” means relating v to v’, v’ to v’’, etc. Why should we compare v’’ with v instead of v’?

When answering a question, one should first determine the framework. If we assume nothing then there can be no answer. However, if we take as given that we are going to formulate theories in terms of Lagrangians then there is essentially only one mass parameter that can appear, i.e., the coefficient of the quadratic term. Thus, whatever mass is there, it is only one mass. The Higgs field clearly modifies the on-shell condition in flat space and general relativity simply says that anyone whose frame is locally flat should reproduce the same result. Thus, the Higgs field appears to modify the gravitational mass. It may also modify the inertial mass by the same amount as can be verified by analyzing some scattering diagrams. However, knowing that we are working within the context of a Lagrangian theory, the fact that inertial and gravitational mass are equal is essentially a foregone conclusion. Are they really different? Let us examine.

RUSSELL’S PARADOX:

Now we will examine EP in the light of Russell’s paradox of Set theory. Russell’s paradox raises an interesting question: If S is the set of all sets which do not have themselves as a member, is S a member of itself? The general principle is that: there cannot be a set without individual elements (example: a library – collection of books – cannot exist without individual books). There cannot be a set of one element or a set of one element is superfluous (example: a book is not a library). Collection of different objects unrelated to each other would be individual members as it does not satisfy the condition of a set. Thus a collection of objects is either a set with its elements, or individual objects that are not the elements of a set.

Let us examine the property p(x): x Ï x, which means the defining property p(x) of any element x is such that it does not belong to x. Nothing appears unusual about such a property. Many sets have this property. A library [p(x)] is a collection of books. But a book is not a library [x Ï x]. Now, suppose this property defines the set R ={x : x Ï x}. It must be possible to determine if RÎR or RÏR. However if RÎR, then the defining properties of R implies that RÏR, which contradicts the supposition that RÎR. Similarly, the supposition RÏR confers on R the right to be an element of R, again leading to a contradiction. The only possible conclusion is that, the property “x Ï x” cannot define a set. This idea is also known as the Axiom of Separation in Zermelo-Frankel set theory, which postulates that; “Objects can only be composed of other objects” or “Objects shall not contain themselves”. In order to avoid this paradox, it has to be ensured that a set is not a member of itself. It is convenient to choose a “largest” set in any given context called the universal set and confine the study to the elements of such universal set only. This set may vary in different contexts, but in a given set up, the universal set should be so specified that no occasion arises ever to digress from it. Otherwise, there is every danger of colliding with paradoxes such as the Russell’s paradox. And in the case of EP, we do just that.

THE THOUGHT EXPERIMENTS OF GR AND EP:

There are similar paradoxes in SR, GR and the EP. Let us examine EP. All objects fall in similar ways under the influence of gravity. Hence it is said that locally one cannot tell the difference between an accelerated frame and an un-accelerated frame. But since measurement is a comparison between similars, these must be related to be compared as equivalent or not? Let us take the example of a person seating in the elevator that is falling down a shaft. It is assumed that locally (i.e., during any sufficiently small amount of time or over a sufficiently small space) the person can make no distinction between being in the falling elevator and being stationary in completely empty space. This is a wrong assumption. We have experienced the effect of gravity or free fall in closed elevators. Even otherwise, unless the door opens and we find a different floor in front of us, we cannot relate motion of the elevator to the un-accelerated structure of the building – hence no equivalence. The moment we relate to the structure beyond the elevator, we can know the relative motion of the elevator, by comparing it against different floors.

Inside a spaceship in deep space, objects behave like suspended particles in a fluid (un-accelerated) or like the asteroids in the asteroid belt. Usually, they are relatively stationary (fixed velocity) within the medium unless some other force acts upon them. This is because of the relative distribution of mass and energy inside the spaceship and its dimensional volume that determines the average density at each point in the medium. Further the average density of the local medium of space is factored into in this calculation. If the person is in a spaceship where he can see the outside objects, then he can know the relative motions by comparing objects at different distances. In a train, if we look only at nearby trees, we may think the trees are moving, but when we compare it with distant objects, we realize the truth. If we cannot see the outside objects, then we will consider only our position with reference to the spaceship – stationary or floating within a frame. There is no equivalence because there is no other frame for comparison. The same principle works for other examples.

It is said that a ray of light, which moves in a straight line will appear curved to the occupants of the spaceship. The light ray from outside can be related to the spaceship only if we consider the bigger frame of reference containing both the space emitting light and the spaceship. If the passengers could observe the scene outside the spaceship, they will notice this difference and know that the spaceship is moving. In that case, the reasons for the apparent curvature of light path will be known. If we consider outside space as a separate frame of reference unrelated to the spaceship, the ray emitted by it cannot be considered inside the spaceship. The consideration will be restricted to those rays emanating from within the spaceship. In that case, the ray will move straight inside the spaceship. In either case, the description of Einstein is faulty. Thus, the foundation of GR - the EP - is wrong description of reality. Hence all mathematical derivatives built upon such wrong description are also wrong. There is only one type of mass.

The shifting of Mercury’s perihelion that is used to validate GR can be explained by (v/c)2 radians per revolution, where v is not the escape velocity, but the velocity component induced by Sun’s motion in the galaxy, which drags the planets also. Mercury being smallest and closest to the Sun, its effect is most profound. Before Einstein, Gerber has solved the problem differently – not using GR. Eddington’s experiment about gravitational lensing has been questioned repeatedly. The effect is due to contrasting refractive indices of the media like the time dilation seen in GPS, where light bends and travels a longer path (also slows down) after entering the denser atmosphere of Earth. Every material that light can travel through has a refractive index, denoted by the letter n. The velocity of light in a vacuum is about 3.0 × 108 m/s. The refractive index equals the ratio of the velocities of light in vacuum (c) to that in the medium (v), that is n = c/v. Light slows down when traveling through a medium, thus the refractive index of any medium will be greater than one. By definition, the refractive index of vacuum is 1. For air at STP it is 1.000277. For air at 0°C and 1 atm., it is 1.000293. This, and not time dilation, slows down light. The problem with Doppler effects in relativity is that there appears to be lack of consistency in their cause and effect relationship with time dilation. In some cases (within SR for example) the time dilation itself is the actual cause of the observed frequency shifting, while in other cases (such as specific equivalence principle models) the acceleration-induced frequency shift seems to cause the time dilation. Both are contradictory.

A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIVISTIC CONCEPT OF TIME:

Before we discuss time orderings or whether time is Newtonian or Relativistic, let us define time precisely. In his 1905 paper, Einstein says: “It might appear possible to overcome all the difficulties attending the definition of ‘time’ by substituting ‘the position of the small hand of my watch’ for ‘time’. And in fact such a definition is satisfactory when we are concerned with defining a time exclusively for the place where the watch is located; but it is no longer satisfactory when we have to connect in time series of events occurring at different places, or - what comes to the same thing - to evaluate the times of events occurring at places remote from the watch”.

It is not a precise or scientific definition of time, but the description of the recordings of a clock, which is subject to mechanical error in its functioning. Space, Time and coordinates, have no physical existence like matter. They arise out of orderings or sequence or our notions of priority and posterity. When the orderings are for objects, the interval between them is called space. When it is for transformations in objects (events), the intervals are called time. When we describe the specific nature of orderings of space (straight line, geodesic, angular, etc), it is called coordinate system. Since measurement is a comparison between similars (Einstein uses fixed speed of light per second to measure distance), we use similar, but easily intelligible and uniformly transforming natural sequence, such as the day or year or its subdivisions as the unit of time. If a clock stops or functions erratically, time does not stop or becomes erratic. Now is a fleeting interface between two events. Hence while at the universal level it is the minimum perceivable interval between two events, in specific cases it can have longer durations as present continuous or continued existence for that form or system. For example, all life cycles that are created undergo six stages of evolution:  transformation from quantum state to macro state (from being to becoming), linear growth due to accumulation of similar particles, non-linear growth or transformation due to interaction with dissimilar particles, transmutation leading to the reverse process of decomposition and final disintegration or decay. The total duration is a life cycle and is continued existence for those individuals or objects.  Comparison between two different natural life cycles is the time dilation between them. Hence Einstein’s definition of time is scientifically wrong. His definition of synchronization is also wrong as shown below.

 Einstein uses a privileged frame of reference to define synchronization between clocks and then denies the existence of any privileged frame of reference – a universal “now” - for time. We quote from his 1905 paper:
We have so far defined only an ‘A time’ and a ‘B time’. We have not defined a common ‘time’ for A and B, for the latter cannot be defined at all unless we establish by definition that the ‘time’ required by light to travel from A to B equals the ‘time’ it requires to travel from B to A. Let a ray of light start at the ‘A time’ tA from A towards B, let it at the ‘B time’ tB be reflected at B in the direction of A, and arrive again at A at the ‘A time’ t’A. In accordance with definition the two clocks synchronize if: tB- tA = t’A-tB.
We assume that this definition of synchronism is free from contradictions, and possible for any number of points; and that the following relations are universally valid:
  1. If the clock at B synchronizes with the clock at A, the clock at A synchronizes with the clock at B.
  2. If the clock at A synchronizes with the clock at B and also with the clock at C, the clocks at B and C also synchronize with each other.”

The concept of relativity is valid only between two objects. Introduction of a third object brings in the concept of privileged frame of reference and all equations of relativity fall. Yet, Einstein does the same while claiming the very opposite. In the above description, the clock at A is treated as a privileged frame of reference for proving synchronization of the clocks at B and C. Yet, he claims it is relative! Thus; his conclusion: “there are many quite different but equally valid ways of assigning times to events or different observers moving at constant velocity relative to one another require different notions of time, as their clocks run differently”, is wrong. Paradoxically, standard formulations of quantum mechanics use the universal “now” frequently.

An event is defined as a single moment in three dimensional space and time, characterized uniquely by (t, x, y, z). Since time is ever changing, it represents time evolution of objects in space. These time evolutions are different for different objects. Their ordered sequence, or the ordered intervals between two such sequences, when measured by a similar but repetitive interval that is easily intelligible, is called time measurement. But this does not justify the conversion factor from time units to space unit via constant speed of light per second - c, because of two reasons: space here is treated as vacuum and there is no true vacuum. Secondly, velocity of light depends on the density of the medium through which it travels, where it bends due to diffraction (which causes time dilation). Einstein has later admitted it and there are plenty of literatures on this subject.

After his SR paper of 1905, Einstein has frequently held that the speed of light is not constant. In his 1911 paper “ON THE INFLUENCE OF GRAVITATION ON THE PROPAGATION OF LIGHT”, he says:
“For measuring time at a place which, relatively to the origin of the coordinates, has the gravitation potential Φ, we must employ a clock which – when removed to the origin of co-ordinates – goes (1 + Φ/) times more slowly than the clock used for measuring time at the origin of coordinates. If we call the velocity of light at the origin of coordinates c0, then the velocity of light c at a place with the gravitation potential Φ will be given by the relation: c = c0 (1 + Φ/c²)……………(3).
The principle of the constancy of the velocity of light holds good according to this theory in a different form from that which usually underlies the ordinary theory of relativity (italics ours).
4. Bending of Light-Rays in the Gravitational Field
FROM the proposition which has just been proved, that the velocity of light in the gravitational field is a function of the place, we may easily infer, by means of Huygens’s principle, that light-rays propagated across a gravitational field undergo deflection”.

Now let us examine Lorentz transformation. The description of the measured state at a given instant is physics and the use of the magnitude of change at two or more designated instants to predict the outcome at other times is mathematics. Measurement is a comparison between similars, of which the constant one is called the unit. The factor v2/c2 or (v/c)2, is the ratio of two dynamical quantities where c is the constant - hence a unit of measurement of a dynamic variable. It can be used to measure only the comparative dynamical velocities; not changes in mass or dimension; which is possible only through accumulation or reduction of similars. The second order factor (v/c)2 represents the modifications of incoming light signal (third dimension - like the electromagnetic radiation) as seen by an observer without changing any physical characteristics of the observed that emits the light signal. Thus, Lorentz transformation is only virtual – not real.

The concept of measurement has undergone a big change over the last century. It all began with the problem of measuring the length of a moving rod. Two possibilities of measurement suggested by Einstein in his 1905 paper (published as Zur Elektrodynamic bewegter Körper in Annalen der Physik 17:891, 1905) were as follows:
(a) “The observer moves together with the given measuring-rod and the rod to be measured, and measures the length of the rod directly by superposing the measuring-rod, in just the same way as if all three were at rest”, or
(b) “By means of stationary clocks set up in the stationary system and synchronizing with a clock in the moving frame, the observer ascertains at what points of the stationary system the two ends of the rod to be measured are located at a definite time. The distance between these two points, measured by the measuring-rod already employed, which in this case is at rest, is the length of the rod”

The method described at (b) is misleading. We can do this only by setting up a measuring device to record the emissions from both ends of the rod at the designated time, (which is the same as taking a photograph of the moving rod) and then measure the distance between the two points on the recording device in units of velocity of light or any other unit. But the picture will not give a correct reading due to two reasons:
·   If the length of the rod is small or velocity is small, then length contraction will not be perceptible according to the formula given by Einstein.
·   If the length of the rod is big or velocity is comparable to that of light, then light from different points of the rod will take different times to reach the recording device and the picture we get will be distorted due to Doppler shift of different points. Thus, there is only one way of measuring the length of the rod as in (a).

It is said that gravity is “curved spacetime”, though Einstein did not use this term in The Foundation of General Relativity published in 1916. To understand gravity, we have to see not only what it does, but also what it is - the cause also, not the effect only. Spacetime is space with motion (evolving in time) through it. An object passing by a star traces a curved path that can be compared to a plane tracing a silver streak in the sky. The silver streak is not a part of the sky. We take a mental snapshot of what we see (the silver streak) now - an ever-shifting instant frozen after measurement as a timeless instant. Later we call this non-existent “picture” as the path of the plane. It is the same with gravity. If we take the derivative of that curved spacetime, what we get is a gradient in space traced at a certain instant, not curved spacetime. The rubber sheet analogy to explain gravity is circular reasoning – use gravity to present a picture of gravity! The path of the smaller ball is “bent” toward the larger ball as it rolls by - only to get pulled-in toward the larger ball. But that is still using actual gravity (gradient) to move one object toward the other.  This seems to explain the change in direction that an already moving object experiences as it passes by. But how does general relativity explain the mechanism behind the “force” pulling on a stationary object (in the simplest possible terms) causing it to acquire kinetic energy and move toward the attracting mass? Is something in space (or space itself) constantly being pulled toward the massive objects which necessitate the motion to maintain a lower energy state?

THE ALTERNATIVE CONCEPT:

Having shown the deficiencies in the “established theories”, let us consider an alternative concept by synchronizing available information. Maxwell’s equations are background invariant. Transverse waves are always characterized by particle motion being perpendicular to the wave motion. This implies the existence of a medium through which the reference wave travels and with respect to which the transverse wave travels in a perpendicular direction. In the absence of the reference wave, which is a longitudinal wave, the transverse wave can not be characterized as such. Transverse waves are background invariant by its very definition. Since light is a transverse wave, it is background invariant. Einstein’s ether-less relativity is not supported by Maxwell’s Equations nor the Lorentz Transformations, both of which are medium (aether) based. Thus, the Michelson-Morley experiments (non-observance of aether drag) cannot serve to ultimately disprove a universal background structure. We posit that the so-called dark energy is the universal background structure.

The universe is thought to be expanding because light from distant galaxies stretch towards redder wavelengths. It is thought that over small distances gravity has reversed the universe’s expansion, so that modest blue-shifts are common. But according to Lowell Observatory Bulletin No. 58 Vol. II No. 8, not even the local group - the collection of approximately 75 galaxies that includes the Milky Way - expands. In fact, the Local Group’s largest member - the Andromeda Galaxy is moving towards us: it has a blue-shift of 300 kilometer per second. Now, astronomers have spotted an object far beyond the Local Group’s borders (at the star clusters around M87, a giant elliptical galaxy located at the heart of the Virgo Cluster, 54 million light-years from Earth) with a blue-shift of 1,026 kilometer per second. We propose that the observed red-shift is due to the amalgamation of continued emission of the same wave lengths at one instant on the recording device or the photographic plate just like the picture of landscape below looks different from different heights from a plane. The non-observance of the expansion at local scales and observation of blue shifts, point out that the galactic clusters are orbiting a common center like planets around the Sun. Sometimes some planets appear to move away while at other times they appear to close in. If it is “dark” because it is non-interacting, then it cannot be energy, because energy is perceived only indirectly by its interactions. Only because it is smooth and persistent, it cannot be energy – fluids are also smooth and persistent. Thus, the concept of dark matter and dark energy needs a review.
Here we start with the creation event and derive the fundamental interactions from it. The big bang does not imply a single event or an event in a designated epoch. It could not have happened in vacuum ex-nihilo and could not have expanded into nothing. Whatever was before the big bang, can be answered by the so-called dark energy. Dark energy appears like a fluid that acts as a background structure like a river on which boats float. The deterministic floating is gravitation and the resultant mechanical propulsions are the fundamental interactions. In arXiv:1402.0290v2 [math.AP] 6 Feb 2014, researchers have shown that in an alternative abstract universe closely related to the one described by the Navier-Stokes equations, it is possible for a body of fluid to form a sort of computer, which can build a self-replicating fluid robot that, like the “Cat in the Hat”, keeps transferring its energy to smaller and smaller copies of itself until the fluid “blows up”. This is in sync with our theory.

Recently researchers made an agglomeration of short-lived cluster of electrons and positively charged “holes” some 200 nanometers across that could form a liquid-like quasi-particle, which has been dubbed Dropleton. A Dropleton is a new kind of particle cluster in solids, formed inside a tiny correlation bubble (drops) that lasts only 25 picoseconds. This liquid-like particle droplet is created by light and its energy has quantized dependency on light intensity. It acts like a super-sized electron. Oppositely charged electrons and holes tend to form pairs called excitons. These pairs are used in solar panels, which employ special materials to separate the electron-hole pairs, freeing up electrons and generating current. The photons that excite the electrons to form Dropleton become entangled with individual exciton pairs. Louis de’ Broglie had theorized that all matter has a wave property associated with it. Combining both, we can reformulate the modern notion of wave-particle duality. What we “see” is the radiation emitted by an object, but what we “touch” is mass that emits radiation that is not seen. It is separate matter and wave – not convertible or occasionally simultaneously a matter and a wave. The principle of mass-energy equivalence, which is treated as the corner-stone principle of all nuclear interactions, binding energies of atoms and nucleons, etc., enters physics only as a corollary of the transformation equations between frames of references in relative motion. The equation e = mc2, implies rate of change in a stable configuration and not mass-energy conversion, as both have opposite properties. We can define mass as confined energy packets of different density - covering a fixed area. Energy confined around a point generates externally directed pressure that is felt as mass. These are digital entities. The field is analog space. Five way bonding between particles and fields are perceived as reality. The universe is a closed system that spins or “swirls” in a “B-mode pattern – to use the phraseology of the BICEP2 telescope team. Their findings question a few inflationary models, but justify our theory. Spin is a common feature of all bodies from atoms to stars to galaxies. It is also a feature of the universe.

The dark energy to total matter ratio in the universe (68.3% to 31.7% subject to precision measurement) is about the same as the ratio of sea to land area on Earth. Further, the total mass of the constituent quarks forms a small fraction of the mass of protons and neutrons, just like ordinary matter forms a small fraction of the cosmos. The neutrinos are the equivalent of falling apples (no one knows whether the neutrinos and the anti-neutrinos are the same or different). Thus, these can be used as a model to represent the universe. The standard model of particle physics says that matter is made of quarks and leptons while the various forces in the universe, such as the strong and weak nuclear forces, and electromagnetism act through “mediator” particles: gluons, Zo, W± and photons. In theory, these mediators are all massless, and so all the fundamental forces should act over infinite distances. But in reality, they do not - the forces have a limited range, and the mediator particles have mass. Further, while the strong and electromagnetic forces have only one “mediator” each, the weak force has three “mediators”. This indicates that the weak force behaves differently than others, i.e., in more than one way.

          Physicists believe that the source of mass is something called the Higgs field that fills the universe and is mediated by a particle known as the Higgs boson. These bosons are thought to exist in a “condensed” state that excludes the mediator particles such as gluons in the same way that a superconductor’s entangled electrons exclude the photons of a magnetic field. This exclusion by the Higgs field is what gives the mediator particles an effective mass, and also limits their range of influence. But no one has shown exactly how they exclude, say, gluons. The condensation of the Higgs bosons and exclusion of the mediators requires entanglement between the Higgs bosons. Entanglement may be linked to the mass of not just the mediator particles, but all fundamental particles. Different particles would interact differently with the entangled Higgs bosons, providing different “effective masses” for each particle. But there must be a connection between entanglement and mass. The laws of physics do allow energy to be converted into matter, but require that almost equal quantities of antimatter be produced in the process. These two are entangled. Thus, entanglement and confinement are related aspects. Entanglement is a function of charge. Hence it can be of two types: one like a fluid in a container and the other like a planet by the star. The former is also of two types: inside the container adjusting to its surface (or like a simple thermostat exploiting the difference in the thermal expansion of two metal films to sense temperature changes and trigger the heating or cooling system on or off as needed) or falling out of it and separated from the rest. The fundamental interactions behave in this manner.

          Each application of force generates an entangled couple of equal and opposite interactions due to laws of conservation (or inertia of restoration) that tries to retain the state at the instant of interaction t, and inertia of motion, that tries to conserve the state after t. These generate impedance and stress respectively in the background field that may be experienced by other bodies entering it - either linearly or non-linearly (when other effects exist). The intensity of interaction depends on the average density of the field encompassing the bodies, the nature of composition of the bodies (internal mass-energy density ratio vis-à-vis the field density: that generates momentum), and distance between the bodies (or their boundaries or orbits). The local density gradient of the field determines the resultant motion – apparent attraction or repulsion witch is described as the curvature of spacetime. Within the body or the system, this creates four entangled sets of proximity-distance variables between the bodies (proximity-proximity, proximity-distance, distance-distance and distance-proximity). These are the four fundamental forces of Nature – strong interaction, two types of weak interaction, and electromagnetic interactions respectively. These are intra-body variables that produce all particles in different combinations and determine dimensions - thus invariant under the Lorentz transformation.

Gravity is an all pervading force that acts on each body linearly. Due to differential mass, the resultant nonlinear movement appears as an inter-body force. In relation to the parts of a body, it resolves into the other four interactions. What is this mechanism? If we look at the mass-energy interaction spectrum, we find that chemical properties begin with molecules that are mixtures of atoms. Atoms can be thought of as compounds of protons and neutrons, but their stability in any combination depends upon several factors. Also different stable combinations produce different elements and isotopes; just like different combinations of quarks form protons or neutrons. They are held together by the n-p chain, which, in turn, depends on quark conversion. This is mediated by release of neutrinos by one and its absorption by the other. This is why energy seemed to disappear when one atomic nucleus decayed into another nucleus plus an electron. The laws of physics do allow energy to be converted into matter, but require that almost equal quantities of antimatter are produced in the process. In a separate paper we will show that in a chain of different mechanisms, the big bang leads to generation of spin or “swirls” in “E-mode and B-mode patterns, which, contrary to popular belief, is not associated with inflation, but disinflation or deflation that slowed down the initial expansion rate. It also leads to generation of charge, so that the structures could be created. Charge leads to generation of entanglement, which leads to the interactions leading to confinement. Everything rests in the all-encompassing field, whose response to all forces is called gravity! This makes G variable between different systems. When we interact with it (apply freewill), we feel entangled “conduction”, “convection” and “radiation” currents differently – in 5, 7, 11, 49 or 122 ways, which explains all motions. We will discuss it later.