Saturday, March 04, 2017


There is much confusion regarding causality – specifically backwards-in-time causality. Also how consciousness is derived from causality. We will clarify these issues.
In our paper for the Kathmandu conference during April 2015, we had discussed causality to show that backwards-in-time causality is impossible. Consider an example: A + B C + D. Here a force makes A and B interact to produce C and D. The same initial force cannot act on C and D as they do not exist at that stage. If we change the direction of the initial forces, then B acts on A. Here only the direction of force and not the interval between the states before and after application of force (time) will change and the equation will be: B + A C + D and not B + A C + D (C and D did not exist then and came into existence as effect of that action). Hence it does not affect causality. This is proved by everyday experience. There is no proof for backwards-in-time causality or negative direction for time.

Relativity has been seriously questioned in various forums and there are sites in the internet dedicated only for this purpose. The black hole firewall paradox; which is the dominant theme in physics for the last three years; shows that, relativity and quantum entanglement; cannot be correct simultaneously. One of them has to be wrong. When we approach a mountain, it “appears” to grow bigger and bigger at a particular rate. This is only apparent and not real. There is no proof that something different happens in quantum world. We have shown that relativity was discussed by Prashastapaada in his पदार्थ धर्म संग्रह (Compendium on the Properties of Matter) and rejected as unscientific description of reality. Further we have shown that it is impossible to measure a moving rod from a fixed frame of reference to show relativistic effects. Till date no one has challenged it. Many have appreciated it. Similarly, we have shown proof citing records that Hafele and Keating’s experiment to prove time dilation was manipulated as was Eddington’s experiment. The time dilation shown in GPS arises out of refraction (light signal entering denser atmosphere of Earth from sparsely dense outer space) and not due to relativity. Now we will explain why we cannot see future.

Past-present-future are three segments (अध्वा) of analog time (अमूर्त काल). Time being infinite, is analog like space (देश), coordinates (दिक्) and consciousness (आत्मा). For the first three we use segments and designate it by suitably digitizing for our convenience (like taking out a pitcher of water from the sea). In the case of Consciousness, the digitized segment is called जीव.

In our paper for the Kathmandu conference, we had shown that Past is not related to present in the same way as present is related to future. Space, Time and coordinates arise from our concept of sequence and interval. When it is related to objects, we call the interval space. When it is related to events, we call the interval time. When we describe inter-relationship of objects, we describe the interval by coordinates. Past, Present and future are segments of these sequences of intervals that are strictly ordered – all of future always follow present. The same sequence is not true for past, because any past event can be linked to the present bypassing the specific sequence of its occurrence but we cannot move from past to future or from present to distant future violating the sequence. Further, we can think of or use the information relating to past with certainty, but cannot do the same for future. This proves unidirectional time – hence strict causality.

The laws of causality shows that present cannot be random, but must be built upon past. Similarly, future must be built upon present. Of these only present is experienced (स्वव्यापारारुढ). Past (अनुभूति व्यञ्जक – that which has been experienced) and future (भवितव्य व्यञ्जक – that which has the potential of being experienced) remain in their potential form. This is a mechanical process – one vector resolving into two other vectors (it being continuously unidirectional, is resolution of present into two uneven components and not backward-in-time causation). Their existence is proved from their predictability, though there are differences in both cases. Some future events are accurately predictable. Since our measuring instruments are capable of only limited readings, often we generalize the limited reading to project future. But objects evolve in time independent of our measurement and our limited freewill interferes with perpetual evolution to bring in uncertainty. This has been discussed elaborately in our Kathmandu paper. Hence all of future is not predictable accurately. Backward-in-time causation will lead to paradoxes like the Grandfather paradox, which will lead to chaos. Since it is against the observed order of the universe, it cannot be true.

Any knowledge must be about something. Knowledge without its object is impossible. We have knowledge of past and present objects, but how does it apply to future? To understand this, we must know the nature of objects. All objects have three aspects: mass (द्रव्य), properties (गुण or शक्ति - energy) and interactive capabilities (क्रिया - everything cannot interact with everything else). Of these, the last one (क्रिया) transforms the first (द्रव्य) – thus, is the evolutionary or the causal factor. However, even though mass is evolved due to interactive capabilities, these in turn belong to the object having fundamental mass. That mass is the fundamental object. Confinement is its quantum property (स्फुट क्रिया). Transformation (macro) is its observed property (स्फुट क्रिया). This is the causal factor. The quantum properties determine its basic interactive characteristics, which, in turn, transform the basic properties of objects including their quantum characteristic. Thus, continued mutual transformation of quantum properties and macro properties is the basic nature of all objects. It is well established that quarks or nucleons retain their confinement based on such mutual transformation (नित्यदाह्यङ्गभूतानि भवन्तिचाभवन्ति च । कालेनालक्ष्य वेगेन सूक्ष्मत्वात् तत् न दृश्यते ।).

The above shows that mutual transformation of the quantum states that affect macro states and vice-versa is the basic nature of the universe (called जगत् - because everything in it is ever moving). When this potential transformation interacts (through sense organs) with our intelligence, it leads to memory and then to knowledge as described in an earlier post. To understand or solve something is to predict its behavior in a given situation, when such prediction matches observed behavior. Something makes meaning only if the description remains invariant under multiple perceptions or measurements under similar conditions through a proper measurement system. In communication, as in perception, it is the class or form that remains invariant as a concept. The sequence of sound in a word or signal ceases to exist, but the meaning remains as a concept. In Nature, same atoms (or numbers signifying objects) may combine differently to produce different objects. The concept arising out of each combination acquires a name (word, message) that remains invariant through all material changes and even when they cease to exist.

In the perception “this (object) is like that (the concept)”, one can describe “that” only if one has perceived it earlier. Perception requires prior measurement of multiple aspects or fields and storing the result of measurement in a centralized system (memory) to be retrieved when needed. To understand a certain aspect, we just refer to the data bank and see whether it matches with any of the previous readings or not. The answer is either yes or no. Number is a perceived property of all substances by which we differentiate between similars. Hence they are most suited for describing messages concerning everything. Since the higher or lower numbers are perceived in a sequence of one at a time, it can be accumulated or reduced by one at each step making it equivalent to binary systems (इदं वा इदं वा). Thus, computers use binary system.

Coming back to causality of mutual transformation, it can be seen that it is infinite in number, which produces infinite varieties. Since it is not possible for our sense organs or measuring instruments to measure the totality, we observe or measure only segments. Hence the segment being observed or measured is called present (स्व व्यापारारूढ). Whatever has the potential of being observed; is called future (अनागत). Thus, if the limitation of capability or temporal barrier is removed, one can have total information about everything transcending time (सर्वज्ञता). In such a state, everything appears like present. Thus, it is said that appearance, disappearance or non-appearance are all relative. They are in perpetual competition to suppress each other due to the causal factor induced by their Lord (जन्मनाशाभिभूताश्च तारतम्येन संस्थिता । स्पर्द्धायोपहिता नित्यम् परतन्त्रश्च सर्वदा).

How does it explain consciousness? Even though energy (शक्ति) and matter that contains potential energy (शक्तिमान्) appear as different, there is no bare mass or bare charge. Only depending upon the degree of dominance, we call it charge or mass. Hence they are two sides of the same coin. Since energy, that propels the organs to function; is a sign of consciousness, and since it cannot be isolated from mass, Purusha cannot be isolated from Prakriti. Based on the degree of dominance, it can be inert (प्रसुप्तस्पन्दन), plants and animals with limited intelligence (सवासनाविला), intelligent (प्रवृद्धस्पन्दन) or super-intelligence (प्रक्षिप्तस्पन्दन). Thus, it has been said that: जाड्याकारस्तु यः शक्तिस्तान्नाभिन्नं परम्पदमम् । स्वप्रधानादि रूपेण त्रिधोपास्यं विचक्षणैः ।

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