Sunday, December 05, 2010


According to reports, there is an increasing trend to have the child birth through caesarian method at a designated instant selected through astrological, numerical or time-rhythmical (historical?) considerations such as 10-10-(20)10. More such cases are likely to follow on 11-11-11 and 12-12-12. Such consideration is not only foolish, but also outright harmful for the child. The so-called professional astrologers who fix such times are half-literates who do not understand the basic tenets of astrology and ignorant of the effect of their own actions and its consequences (mostly they are poor with spoilt children and cannot do anything about it). The persons who seek their advice are mostly rich men who could afford such huge expenses and think that with their money power, they can manipulate even their children’s destiny. This is a cruel joke, as has been explained below. They may be creating the Frankenstein’s monster without their knowledge.

On 10-10-2010, two such child births took place at two renowned hospitals at Kolkata – one at 0620 hrs and the other at 1254 hrs. One was a businessman and the other a C.I.D. Officer. One believed in manipulating the stars through money power to change the destiny of the child and the other was not so keen in astrology or numerology, but thought that the special rhythmical nature of the birth date could make the child a celebrity of sorts. The horoscopes show some excellent features that are to be expected from the rules of praarabdha – the accumulated results of the actions of the previous birth, which is delineated from the Dwaadashaamsa chart and otherwise seen from pedigree – abhijaata vala, which in strength is next only to pragnyaa vala - intelligence. Simultaneously, some resultant features of the parental action indicating injury and bloodshed to mother are also indicated. Yet, such manipulations have resulted in significant negative aspects, which might have been avoided, had it been a natural birth. Before we deal with the specific cases, let us deal with the basic concepts of astrology.

In keeping with “scientific temper”, everything is sought to be explained mathematically through equations. Yet the proper significance of equations is often over-looked. The left hand side of the equation represents the inputs or the cause. Since we have the freedom to choose the parameters for the left hand side of the equation, it signifies free-will. The right hand side of the equation represents the effect according to fixed rules, where we do not have such free-will. The laws of interactions are predetermined. The reaction has to follow the laws only. This is the first basic principle of astrology – you are free to do what you want (within your limitations); but you get the result of such actions based on fixed rules. God cannot be partial. He has fixed the rules equally for all. He is compassionate in the sense that if you submit to Him in true spirit, He shows you the path to come out of the problem with minimum suffering. It will only be a re-mix of the accumulated results of your past actions tempered with the results of present actions to canalize your progress differently to dilute the intensity of present suffering. But He cannot change the results of one’s actions – add to or subtract from it - as once an action is performed, inertia takes over. Changing the results of one’s actions implies arbitrarily changing the laws of inertia for the benefit of a few persons. In effect this implies that there would be no fixed rule, as it can be changed arbitrarily. Since He is Satya-moorti, He cannot change His Rules and make it redundant – asatya.

Whenever we receive some stimuli, we react based on our past exposure to such stimuli according to whether the memory of such stimuli was harmonious, disharmonious or neutral to our other accumulated experience. If it is harmonious, we feel happy. If it is disharmonious, we feel unhappy. If it is neutral, we ignore it, but note it for future reference. Thus, in effect the results of our actions accumulate in three running accounts. Based on the external environment and the restrictions put on us due to our account balance, we draw from these accounts and spend it. For example, if we are roaming in a place full of high class hotels, but we do not have sufficient money, we will remain hungry. We may move out and find a suitable place to purchase food as per our budget. Alternatively, if we have sufficient money, we can enjoy. If we are standing alone under a tall tree laden with ripe fruits, but we are incapable of climbing the tree due to some of our deficiencies, we cannot get the fruit on our own. By chance a fruit may fall or we may find out some other way of getting the fruits or some one else may give it to us. But that chance is regulated by whether we are destined to get such results. These are illustrative of the effects of action - enjoyment and suffering (sukha-duhkha saakshaatkaara bhogah). They cover all aspects of life.

This is happening perpetually. When we suffer, some of our negative balance is being spent. When we enjoy, we draw from our positive account. By our present actions, we are replenishing the balance. If we go on spending from our account only, we will exhaust our balance. When all the accounts become zero; that hypothetical state is known as moksha. This is the second basic principle of astrology – we write our own destinies (left hand side of the equation – free-will), but we do not have full control over how we get the results (right hand side of the equation - determinism) – karmanyevaadhikaaraste maa phaleshu kadachana. The limitations put on us by virtue of our present birth or our environment has a major influence in deciding our destiny – whether, when, how and how much we enjoy or suffer.

The results of our past actions have already been determined according to the fixed universal rules and we have no control over it. The accumulated results of our actions and our last desire in the previous birth jointly determine our present birth. The soul wanders to find an appropriate body and once it finds the body, it enters the womb of that yoni. This creates a new chain with certain limitations put on us by the new life form that cannot be changed. Hence – it is called praarabdha – the beginning of a new cycle. The features such as pedigree, health, marital and general happiness, general prosperity, skill, talent, profession and death etc, the features that cannot be changed significantly (but as will be described later, whose level of excellence can be varied), are called Daardhya karma – unchanging features. Only these can be found out precisely through horoscope.

Some features of our running account of results (karma phala) cannot materialize in our present birth or can materialize at certain specific periods only because of the limitations put on its operation. These are called sanchita karma - accumulated results. They influence serious diseases, child-birth, etc., from time to time, which can be remedied by mani-mantra-aushadhi – precious stones, rituals or medications. Since these effects may or may not vary, these are called Daardhyaadaardhya karma – variable features. These can be found out precisely only through Karma-vipaaka – special treatises on these subjects. However, it may not be possible always to overcome the problems. The totality of praarabdha and sanchita karma are accumulated results that have already been determined and we have no control over it. Thus, together they are called Bhaagya or Niyati – fate. Yet, it is not absolute and can be modified as described below. But there is a caveat – maa karmaphala heturbhuh – do not think that whenever we try to manipulate our fate, we will succeed. We can only try – the effect of our action is again beyond us. Hence unless we are extremely careful, we may create more damage than we expect.

In one case we noticed a specific combination for childlessness due to curse by the mother. The mother had actually cursed the daughter in her present life for marrying against her will. We advised some rituals as a remedy, which included taking bath in sea and then worshipping Lord Rameshwaram. But the husband was mortally afraid of sea and the wife would not even think of forcing him to do anything against his wishes. Ultimately they adopted a child. Had she known it earlier and tried not to against the wishes of her mother, she might have avoided the present problem, but it might have taken a different shape.

Our actions regulate our destiny. Hence the efforts put in by us in the present birth till now have already been added to our running account modifying its nature. But we have full control over our future actions and we may regulate it in such a manner as to influence the nature of our account in a desired manner. Since these deeds are yet to be done, it is within our control. These actions are called kriyamaana karma – concurrent actions or paurusha – talent that has the power to change our fate. How far we will succeed will depend on the intensity of our efforts and the strength of our existing account. In this, we are influenced by our environment, which regulate our attitude, though it does not materially change much. With the same input, we may feel elated and encouraged to do something or otherwise; thereby changing the results. Because they have the effect of modifying our destiny, even the predictions of Nadi astrology fail for the future, even though it is highly accurate for past events.

Since these have the potential of changing the nature of our fate or at least it’s spending pattern of the accumulated results of our past actions in an arbitrary pattern (depending upon the intensity of our actions and the environment), these are called adridha karma – variable features. The results of kriyamaana karma – concurrent actions, can be known from prashna – horary astrology and the results of environmental effects can be known from gochara – transit effects of planets and Samhita – effect of planetary movements on Earth that influence mundane matters. These include shakuna – omens and muhurta - electional astrology. Only a prediction combining all these aspects will be accurate. For the astrologer, there are two more tools to predict accurately – saamudrika or anga lakshana – prediction from bodily features and swarodaya - prediction from flow of the vital energy.

The study of astrology as propounded by the Rishis is no longer followed. For example, the bha-chakra is not the same as the zodiac. The total numbers of radiations have been classified into 1000 categories – sahasraamshu. These radiations come to Earth from different directions. There is a peculiar fashion in the distribution of these rays coming to Earth from different directions. The extent of rashi – which means heap – is determined based on the number of radiations coming from specific directions in clusters. Thus, the extent of each rashi is not uniform. The radiations are basically in three groups and three complementary groups Thus we find that if one planet owns a favorable house, it also owns an unfavorable house to complement for the good results. In this sense Sun-Moon act as complements – agnishomaatmaka jagat. Since the same number of radiations coming from one direction gets modified after interaction with the Earth’s magnetosphere, the rashi in the opposite direction has the same magnitude, but modified effects. This is the concept behind bhaava chart.

Aries-Libra and Taurus-Scorpio, both of which are related to male-female relationship (creation matters) have not only assigned first and second places, but also adjacent and complement ownership of houses. Their placement is also determined with purpose. Virgo is 5th from Taurus signifying place for child and 12th from Libra signifying bed comfort for the lady. Pisces is 6th from Libra signifying the negative aspects of union that lingers. Bed comfort with its complement Mars-Scorpio leads to child birth with pain for female. Virgo is 6th from Aries signifying pain and Pisces is 12th from Aries signifying bed comfort for the male. Thus bed comfort leads to child-birth, which is a burden for men. Yet, everyone wants child as future progeny. Hence the same planets owning 12th house have been assigned ownership of 9th house for Mars and Libra.

The same principle goes for Gemini-Sagittarius and Virgo-Pisces. There two are related to product of mind that is intelligence (Budha is Chandraputra and chandramaa manaso jaatah) and the effect of intelligence that is respectability for wisdom. Since respectability also comes from wealth, these are associated with income and finances etc. Mercury’s effects are inherent or internal (hence ninth from Libra – women generally stay at home), whereas Jupiter’s effects are seen by others (external – hence ninth from Aries – men generally stay outside). Some may dispute that the house-wife roles for female are changing. But so is their feminity. According to a recent report, the long term effect of steroids used in birth control pills is changing the brain function of the ladies. The changing life styles of working women are making subtle impacts on their physiognomy. According to a recent report, cancer is an outcome of the modern way of living, as the mummies do not show any signs of damage to their vital organs, which shows that it was non-existent in the past. The same principle goes for the other houses, which signify the mechanism that sustains and creates excellence and its anti-thesis. These can be elaborated to get the complete significations and their effects.

The source of origin of the stars including Sun and other planets is the same 1000 categories of radiation – sahasraamshu. In the case of yellow stars like the Sun, it is called Haridashwa. In the case of the planets, these are other groups like shushumnaa, udangvasu, etc. Thus, the total number of grahas can only be seven. Adding the two nodes for their effects, it can be only 9 grahas. There is no place for extra-Saturnine planets, as these do not satisfy the criteria for being a graha. The seven planets are associated with heat (even Saturn releases more heat than it absorbs), as they are created from the same source (Chandraadyaashcha grahaah sarve vigneyaa sooryasambhavaah). But the extra-Saturnine planets are different (aapah moorti - nabhaswaan). Hence they can not be placed on the same footing as a graha. Otherwise we would have to consider satellites like Titan and Ganymede, etc, which are much nearer and sufficiently bigger.

The computer is called g.i.g.o – garbage in garbage out because the output is based on the input. For the operating program, the astrologer who helped in designing the program must have sufficient knowledge of the original texts and their manner of interpretation. For example, Neechabhanga rajayoga is a common feature seen in many horoscopes and many astrologers predict its results in glorious terms. But the predicted result – Chakravarty or Emperor – is never seen. The reason is that the original word is “Nripa Chakravarty”. The two words mean King and Emperor respectively. These words mean the same thing though the strength varies in degrees. According to traditional methods of writing, repetition is avoided. If two words have the same meaning varying only in degrees, then the stronger word alone is used unless there is a special reason for including both. Since these two words have been used in the text, it must be interpreted to be not a general case, but a special case, where only a King can become an Emperor. The reason is clear. A person can be a king only if he has powerful combinations. In spite of this, if he had not become an Emperor, it must be due to the planet in debilitation, which has taken away some strength from his destiny. Yet, since the planet is in a Kendra, it has the potential of bestowing him with special powers and through his Karma; he has the chance of overcoming the problem and becoming an Emperor. Thus, here the rajayoga does not come automatically, but with his added efforts. In the case of common men, it indicates that they have the potential to improve their status by suitable actions. In case he fails to add good results to his accumulated results, he cannot benefit from such a combination.

Most treatises divide the Hora chart only into two categories – that of Sun & Moon only. Similarly, in case of Trishamsha, they divide it among 5 planets excluding Sun & Moon. Thus, in Shadchakra, Dashachakra, or Shodashachakra, one planet cannot occupy benefic position in all houses, even though such positions have been prescribed in the texts and their results have been predicted. The explanation for this anomaly can be resolved only if we read the original text, which says: “Meshaadi taasaam horaanaam parivritti dwayo bhavet” – counting from Mesha, they complete two circles. This is possible only if we accept that the 1st Hora of Aries is Aries and the second Hora is Taurus and so on (like in Navaamsha). The Sun & Moon referred to in the Texts are the Devataa for such Hora. Since one accumulates money and shows off so that others can see or keeps it secretly away from others, they have only two Devataas (rashmibhutaastu devataah). They are only two in number for the 24 Horas’. The same principle applies for other Divisions like Drekkaana etc (parivritti trayo bhavet).

Often it is said that mathematics is the language of science. But mostly what is meant by mathematics is equations. Equations are symbols that need to be properly interpreted to have any meaning. Similarly, the horoscopes are charts that need to be properly interpreted. Interpretation needs plenty of common sense with a thorough knowledge of the traditions and culture of the person. The changing attitudes and practices of the society has to be kept in mind during prediction. Once, two friends came to us for fixing the dates of their respective marriages. We said that at that time there is no prospect for their marriage, though they had such combinations in the past. It turned out that both were already married - one had a court marriage and the other a secret love marriage. They wanted to fix the date for their civil marriage. Thus the question was not related to the date of marriage, but one of electional astrology for virtually a civic reception. Similarly, once we predicted that a person would have relationship with two ladies one of which would be a virtuous lady and the other a lady of immoral character. One of the ladies would be a dancer. Everybody assumed that the dancer would be the lady of immoral character. But as it turned out, it was the other way round. The first lady was of immoral character, who tried to blackmail him for marriage. He became wise and severed the relationship. He married the dancer, who was a virtuous lady and was a perfect partner not only in house, but also in profession. Such pitfalls have to be kept in view.

Coming back to the designer horoscopes, we will like to caution the parents and astrologers from two perspectives. According to the rules of Shakuna, the omens of animals in their natural surroundings only are to be considered. Otherwise, the results will be invalid. Hence the true results for such designer horoscopes can be predicted only by casting the charts for conception, which is not possible in Kali Yuga. The time of birth for casting the horoscope changes over the Yugas from nisheka - conception to jalaksharana – watery secretion to sheershodaya – coming out of the head to bhupatana – coming out completely. In this case of designer horoscopes, coming out was not natural, but artificial. Hence the Horoscope has to be examined with caution like the shakuna not in its natural surroundings.


The charts for the two births reported earlier are reproduced above. In all such cases, the horoscope must show injury and bloodshed to the mother, which is true in these cases. Fourth Houses in both cases are influenced by Mars, who is with Moon. There are some Raja yoga forming combinations prominent among which is that of Venus occupying own house in Kendra (Lagna in the 1st horoscope). The Ascendants in both cases are in Vargottama. Moon is associated with 10th House in both horoscopes. Rahu is also in a favorable disposition. We will not like to comment much on these horoscopes publicly, but only point out the negative aspects in a general way.

We had already pointed out that destiny is nothing but the effects of one’s own actions. The effect of parental actions will be enjoyed by the parents. It cannot be extended to the child. The parents tried to tamper with the child’s fate for their own joy. They got it temporarily, but at the cost of inflicting injury and pain to the mother and paying money for it (poornamadah poornamidam). The continuing enjoyment will be accompanied by continuous suffering as an after effect of the operation (tena tyaktena bhunjithaa). Now let us see the effect of such parental actions on the child – whether the parents got what they desired. Whether their action will change or create the fate of the child? The answer is clearly a big NO. As we have pointed out earlier, the child will enjoy the fruits of its past actions as modified by the actions of the present birth subject to the limitations put on it by virtue of such birth. They must have done some good deeds in their past lives to have been born to affluent parents in the present life, which gives them an advantage. But this does not change the limitations of their account. By their actions in the present birth, they can change the advantage to the set point or else revert back to duce. But with such indulging parents, the chances are heavily tilted in the direction of the duce than set point.

All actions take place the moment the conditions necessary for it to happen materializes. The delivery takes place at a particular time, because only at that instant the fetus becomes ready to come out of the womb. According to recent reports, having a baby may make a woman more intelligent. Research shows that a woman’s grey matter - brain cells that crunch information - grows in the weeks and months after she has given birth. And it’s the most doting mothers who experience the biggest burst of brain cells. Such changes usually only occur after intense periods of learning or a brain injury or illness. It is thought that the hormonal changes associated with having a baby ‘supercharge’ the brain, helping prepare women for the challenges ahead. And the memory lapses that plague new mothers may be explained by a simpler cause - sleep deprivation. The finding contradicts the popular notion that motherhood saddles a woman’s brain, reports the journal Behavioural Neuroscience. Neuroscientists from Yale University in the US scanned the brains of a group of new mothers in the weeks after they had given birth. The results showed that the amount of grey matter had increased by a small but significant amount by the time the women were three to four months into motherhood. The areas that grew involve motivation, reasoning, judgement, the processing of emotions and feelings of satisfaction, and are keys to the mother-child relationship. Expansion in the brain’s “motivation area”, said the researchers, could lead to more nurturing, which would help babies survive and thrive physically, emotionally and cognitively. Mothers who gushed most about their newborns tended to experience the biggest amounts of growth.

Bringing out the child prematurely leads to several deformities, many of which may not be apparent at birth or even in childhood. But its effect cannot be ignored in the long run. According to ancient authorities of Ayurveda, “oja”, that which provides the immunity factor to the body, redistributes itself during the 8th month after the body is fully developped. During this period, the mother sometimes becomes very happy and at other times very restless without any apparent reason. The child born during this period does not survive, even though the child born before this time survives though remains very weak. Only when the distribution of “oja” is complete, the child is born. This shows that the children born before labor pain starts are deficient in immunity. This will not be apparent in formative years, but will be apparent with age as more susceptible to decease.

There is bound to be hormonal changes after the operation both for the mother and the child. This is demonstrated in the experimental evidence that the mother’s brain’s “motivation area” expands after child birth. The same principle will apply to the child also. A child born before labour pain starts must have some deficiencies and would have attitudinal problems. Look at the marital and family life including the prospects for and happiness due to children of the two children born through caesarian method at a designated instant. What about their relationship with parents? (Is it a revenge for tampering with their lives?) Whether professional excellence and money are everything in life? Are we not becoming materialistic morons? Whether we need to sacrifice all values in search for illusory power and fame?

Mada – arrogance may appear to be good temporarily but is harmful in the long run. Dama – subdued-ness may appear to be harmful temporarily but is good in the long run. When will we learn? Let people ponder over these.

Is Reality Analog or Digital

Is Reality Digital or Analog

The Scientific American and Peter & Patricia Gruber Foundation with FQXi’s had organizing an International essay competition on the theme: “Is Reality Analog or Digital”. The phraseology of the topic is symptomatic of the malaise of reductionism that is endemic in modern science. It is like asking: “Whether observation by the Schrödinger’s cat can collapse the wave function”, without defining the observer and the precise mechanism of wave function collapse. Such open-ended questions leave ample scope for manipulation and diverting the topic into various directions not consistent with each other. There are a large number of different approaches to the foundations of Quantum Mechanics (QM). Each approach is a modification of the theory that introduces some new aspect with new equations which need to be interpreted. Thus there are many interpretations of QM. Every theory has its own model of reality. There is no unanimity regarding what constitutes reality. We will first define the ultimate nature of Reality and then show that there is a deep, foundational reason why reality must be purely analog and digital descriptions can be derived from continuous symmetries.

Quantum effects exist in the macro world also but are generally overlooked. Though some features appear to be exclusively quantum features, the synergy between quantum theory and classical theories are gradually emerging. The American Mathematical Society in October 2005 reported that the Theory of Dynamical Systems used for calculating the trajectories of space flights and the Theory of Transition States for chemical reactions share the same sets of mathematics. This proves that both microcosm and the macrocosm replicate each other. Example: the internal structure of proton and Planet Jupiter is similar. Like protons, there is an abundance of Jupiter like planets in the universe.

Everything in Nature can be broadly categorized into fields, particles and strings. There is no single description that explains all phenomena on its own. A field is a region of space characterized by a physical property having a determinable value at every point in the region. If we put a body in a field, we can notice something else out of that field which makes the body interact with it in specific ways that can be measured. This something else is a type of force that interacts with the confined body as a whole. Quantum Field Theory can’t be imagined without particles which are accelerated and scattered in colliders. Particles and fields are temporally different but inseparable conjugates bound by a common thread like the diameter and circumference of a circle. This has given rise to the idea of strings with many unanswered questions1. High temperature particles are confined by low temperature fields giving them fixed dimension. Energy confined around a point generates externally directed pressure that is felt as mass. These are digital entities. The field is analog space. The four way bonding2 between particles and fields are perceived as reality.

All bodies are created from the same fundamental particles. Only the numbers of these particles and the pattern of their coupling make each body different from others. Quantum particles are like compounds (strong coupling) of fundamental particles and macro particles are like mixtures (weak coupling) of quantum particles. These are nothing but accumulation and reduction of particles in the field in specified ways with a countable set of discrete values. This implies that Nature or Reality is mathematical but only in specified ways.

Mathematics is said to be the language of nature. Language is a created vibration or sign that is meaningful only if it follows a fixed pattern and a fixed meaning is ascribed to each specific combination of vibrations or signs. Mathematics is a tool with specially created sets of symbols and operations that is meaningful only if the accumulation and reduction in numbers follow a fixed pattern to make it logically consistent. To be a language of nature, mathematics must be logically consistent in specified ways. Thus there is physics beyond known mathematics and all mathematical statements are not physics. Mostly they perpetuate incomprehensibility. Example: if the cost of 5 bikes equals the cost of 1 car, then the cost of 1 bike equals the cost of 1/5th of a car. But 1/5th of a car is a meaningless statement. Most of the so called mathematics used to describe events are unphysical and unmathematical3.

There is no equation for the observer. Can any equation ever describe the fragrance of the wild flower, the cacophony of the birds in the morning, the musical rhythm of the flowing fountains or the enchanting smile on the lips of the beloved? Can there be an equation for love, happiness, devotion or other sublimate emotions? Are they not real?

Mathematics is related to numbers, which is a property of particles by which we differentiate between similars. Fields have no numbers because we can’t differentiate between similar fields. Fields have no rigid boundary. If we add two volumes of water, we get a higher volume (mathematics); but now we can’t differentiate between the two volumes (physics). Fields reveal different forces that co-exist but unlike mass, they are not linearly additive4.Their interaction is in the realm of the quantum.

Measurement is a process of comparison between similars. Thus the result of measurement is always a scalar quantity. Measurement processes for particles and fields are different, just like measurement processes for space, time and space-time5 are different. The result of measurement is the description of the state of the object measured at a designated instant. The state of the object was not the same before nor will be the same after the measurement as it continues to evolve in time independent of our observation. We freeze the description of the state at a designated instant and call it the result of measurement at subsequent times. All other unknown states together are called superposition6.

Everything in the Cosmos is confined and ever moving. Quarks move within the confinement of neutrons and protons. Nucleons and electrons move within the confinement of the atoms. Atoms move within molecules that are confined in the body. Planets move confined within the Solar system. Sun and the stars move within the Galaxy. Galaxies are said to be receding from each other. But the expansion is not uniform. It is apparent only at clusters and super clusters of galaxies, but not in the solar system or even the stars within the Galaxy. The solar system is not expanding but the planets appear to be moving away from each other periodically to come closer again as they orbit the Sun. Thus the only explanation for the expanding universe is that the galactic clusters are spinning around a common center at different velocities, which appear as receding from each other. The universe is a closed system that spins. Spin is a common feature of all bodies from atoms to stars to galaxies. It is also a feature of the universe.


While the particles are constantly changing their alignment within their confinement, these are not externally apparent. Various circulatory systems work within our body that affects its internal dynamics polarizing it differently at different times which are not apparent in our interaction with other bodies. The elementary particles have intrinsic spin and angular momentum which continually change their state internally. The time evolution of all systems takes place in a continuous chain of discreet steps. Each body acts as one indivisible system. This is a universal phenomenon that creates the uncertainty because the internal dynamics of the field that creates perturbation are not known to us. We may quote an example. Imagine an observer and a system to be observed. Between the two let us assume two interaction boundaries. When one medium ends and another medium begins, the interface of the two media is called the boundary. Thus there will be one boundary at the interface between the observer and the field and another at the interface of the field and the system to be observed. In a simple diagram, the situation is like:

O represents the observer and S the system to be observed. The vertical lines represent the interaction boundaries. The arrows represent the information exchange in the act of observation.

All information requires an initial perturbation as perception is possible only through interaction (exchange of force). Such application of force is preceded by freewill or a choice of the observer to know about some aspect of the system through a known mechanism. The mechanism is deterministic – it functions in predictable ways. To measure the state of the system, the observer must cause at least one quantum of information (energy, momentum, spin, etc) to pass from him through the boundary to the system to bounce back for comparison. The quantum of information (seeking) or initial perturbation relayed through an impulse (effect of energy etc) after traveling through (and modified by) the partition or the field is absorbed by the system to be observed or measured (or it might be reflected back or both) and the system is thereby perturbed. The second perturbation (release of energy) passes back through the boundary to the observer (among others), which is translated as the quantum of information. The observation is the observer’s subjective response on receiving this perturbation.

The system being observed is subject to various potential (internal) and kinetic (external) forces which act in specified ways independent of observation. For example chemical reactions take place only after certain temperature is reached. Observation doesn’t affect it. We measure the outcome – not the process. The result of measurement will depend on the totality of the forces acting on the systems and not only on the perturbation created by the observer. Thus the other influences affecting the outcome of the information exchange give rise to an inescapable uncertainty in observations.

The observer observes the state at the second perturbation – neither the state before nor after. If ∑ represents the state of the system before and ∑ ± ∑ represents the state at the instant of perturbation, then the difference linking the transformations in both states (other effects being constant) is minimum if ∑ << ∑. If I is the impulse selected by the observer to send across the interaction boundary, then ∑ must be a function of I: i.e. ∑ = f (I). Thus the observation is affected by the choices made by the observer also. Observation records only a temporal state and freezes it as the result of observation. Its true state at any other instant is not evident. Quantum theory takes these uncertainties into account. However, the mathematical format of the uncertainty principle is wrong.

The inequality: δx. δp ≥ h permits simultaneous determination of position along the x-axis and momentum along the y-axis; i.e., δx. δpy = 0

Position has fixed coordinates and the axes are fixed arbitrarily so that the dimensions remain invariant under mutual transformation. Position along x-axis and momentum along y-axis can only be related at the origin (0,0). If one has a non-zero value, the other has zero value. Multiplying both, the result will always be zero. Thus no mathematics is possible between position (fixed coordinates) and momentum (mobile coordinates) as they are mutually exclusive.

Uncertainty is not a law of Nature. It is a result of natural laws relating to observation that reveal a kind of granularity at certain levels of existence that is related to causality. The left hand side of equations represents free-will, as we are free to choose the parameters. The right hand side represents determinism as the outcome is based on the input in predictable ways. The equality sign prescribes the special conditions to be observed. For example, we can’t create a molecule from any combination of atoms – it has to follow certain rules. The conditions may be different for the initial perturbation sending the signal out and the second perturbation leading to the reception of the signal back for comparison because the inputs may be different like c+v and c-v. The “special conditions” and external influences and not the process of measurement create uncertainty.


Some say reality must be well defined according to nonhuman entities that lack any understanding of human concepts like particle, observation, etc. For some there are two views of reality: external or the bird’s eye view like the overview of a physicist studying its mathematical structure and inside or the frog in the well view of an observer living in the structure. They confuse the external factors affecting reality with the first view and the functioning of the instrument or sense organs with the second view. Ever-changing processes can’t be measured other than in time. Since we observe the state and not the process during measurement, objects under ideal conditions are as they evolve independent of being perceived. What we see reflects only a temporal state of their evolution.

Reality is related to perception which has three components: the object of perception, the observer and the mechanism of perception (includes instrument). The mechanism of perception is affected by two factors: its mechanical functioning and the external factors that introduce uncertainty. Since the external factor is as important as the mechanical functioning of the measuring instrument, reality has to exist independent of observation. Process malfunctioning distorts reality. For example mirages are seen, but are not real. Color blind persons do not perceive some colors. To know their true state, we must consider a large number of observations and accept the mean value as representative of reality. This is done in most measurements – especially in time keeping measurements. The same principle should apply to reality. Reality is the description that remains invariant under similar conditions during proper perception at all times. This description is possible only if it satisfies three conditions.

A description of objects can’t be completely abstract because reality has no meaning unless its existence is perceived as such. The relationship between objects is secondary and can be purely imaginary. When we describe imaginary objects, each individual component of it must exist and have been perceived by us even though a combination of such components may not be possible. If we imagine a flying horse, we must have seen a horse and something flying. Thus independent discreet existence, i.e. confinement is a criterion of reality. When the field set up by our sense organs interacts with that of any object, the impulse is measured - compared with the memory in our brain. If there is a similar previous experience, we describe the experience as similar to the other. In other words, the content of our perception is: “this is like that”. If there is no previous experience, we store the information (without perceiving it clearly) for future reference. The this is like that part, i.e. knowability is a criterion of reality. It plays an important role in the double-slit experiment and entanglement.

Perception is a matter of personal experience. We can describe the object that we have perceived through speech form for comparison with other’s perception. The “that” in the above statement is described through speech form. Thus confinement, knowability and describability are the three essential conditions for judging reality.


Something that exists, can be known and described, implies it has both digital and analog components, as all measurements are done in present, which has a fleeting existence. We use the result of this measurement at a time that is in future with reference to the time of measurement. We use the information when the time of measurement is in the past. We compare the result of present measurement with that of the past memory to perceive it. Thus, perception is time invariant – hence analog. Yet, each individual perception is digital like separating a pot of water from the ocean.

Both time and space are related to sequence. We fix some unit of time and space from an intelligible repetitive interval. We call the interval between objects as space and compare it with a fixed interval unit to measure space. Similarly, we call the interval of the events as time and compare it with a fixed interval unit to measure time. But these are small segments of the infinite expanse that is described as space or time. Every unit of space and time is just like every other unit and they are indiscernible. We mark them with particular objects or events and superimpose this description over space and time as a matter of convenience. Curvature of space is actually curvature of the objects that define space. Space, which is the interval, can’t be curved. Like a fluid it assumes the shape of the object. No one knows when space or time started or where it will end. However, there is no ambiguity about their segments measured by us. This has important implications for relativity7.

Space is related to objects that are associated with numbers and time is related to changes in them. When there are no other similar objects and the dimensions of the object is fully perceptible, we call the number associated with it as one. But in the case of one, if the complete dimensions are not perceptible, then we call the number associated with it as infinity7. Infinity is not a very big number. Since we can not perceive other entities similar to space and time, they are like one. But since the complete dimensions of space and time are not perceptible, they are infinite. Any non-linear accumulation or reduction (multiplication and division) of 1 or ∞ is mathematically void. Since their complete dimensions are not perceptible, linear accumulation or reduction of ∞ is also void. Hence renormalization is mathematically void.

Objects change with time, which is possible only with successive application of external force for which there must be some interval. This interval is not void. It is the field and the charge transmitted through it. In space measurement, we use the perception of the number of steps the unit takes to cover the interval between objects. Since these units are discrete, the result of space measurement is digital. In the case of time measurement we compare the interval between changes with a standard interval. Yet these are segments of the infinite space and time respectively making discreteness evident even though they are segments of a continuum.

This explains the implications of minimal length, time or energy. Since objects occupy some position, unit change of position implies total movement from the space occupied by it to the adjacent space. Since particles are confined in space, we can use the space occupied by the smallest perceptible particle as the unit length. That is the minimum length. The interval between successive movements over the minimum length is the minimum time. The energy required to move the smallest particle to the adjacent position is the minimum energy.

In addition to space and time, the universe is analog (infinite) in two different ways only: order of arrangement (direction) and consciousness, as only these two fit the description of infinity. We can perceive what is described as any specific direction with reference to the order of placement of any object with reference to another object. But by changing the order of arrangement we create a new sequence which changes the relative direction of the object without changing the axis. For example, if two objects P1 and P2 have placement values of x = 3 and x = 5 respectively, we say that P1 is in the -x direction from P2. But by changing the placement of P1 to x = 7, we create a sequence, where P2 is in the -x direction from P1. Though our description of their relative direction has changed, the axis has not changed. Since there is no other sequence like direction and we cannot perceive the full extent of any axis, it has infinite dimension like an analog field. We use only particular segments of it by devising a relative unit, which is a digital description.

The same logic applies to consciousness. In the content of conscious perception: this is like that, the term this refers to the interaction between the field set up by the object with the field set up by our sensory organs. The term is refers to time invariance, because the interaction that happened at now has been associated with past at the instant of consideration, which is future with reference to the instant of measurement. The term like refers to comparison with similars, i.e., measurement. The term that refers to the constancy of values assigned to the objects of perception. In such exercises, the conscious Self as differentiated from others (this leads to empathy), remains invariant as I perceive. Since there is no other mechanism like perception and since we can’t perceive the full extent of perception, it is infinite like an analog whole. Yet, we use only particular segments of perception for our purpose, which is a digital description.

This description is consistent with flow of time. Since objects in space don’t continuously change their position, space is differentiated from time, which is associated with continuous change of position, i.e. application of external force. If we measure the spread of the objects from two opposite directions, there is no change in their position. Thus the concept of negative direction of space is valid. Time is related to change, which materializes because of the interaction of bodies with forces. Force is unidirectional. It can only push. There is nothing as pull. It is always a push from the opposite direction. (Magnetism acts only between magnetic substances and not universally like other forces. It has a different explanation.) Consider an example:

A + B → C + D.

Here a force makes A interact with B to produce C and D. The same force doesn’t act on C and D as they don’t exist at that stage. If we change the direction of the force, B acts on A. Here only the direction of force and not the interval between the states before and after application of force (time) will change and the equation will be:

B + A → C + D and not B + A ← C + D.

Hence it does not affect causality.

There can be no negative direction for time or cause and effect.

A computer model can workout the data fed to it in the manner prescribed by the program writer. This puts severe restrictions on the computation, as the designer has to design within his limited knowledge. Since perception is time invariant (we perceive something at present in the same way as we had perceived something similar in the past), and it is the result of measurement of the impulses received by our sense organs that act mechanically, the World can theoretically be modeled as a digital computation. But it is physically impossible due to two inhibiting factors: the limitations of our perception and the mechanism of perception.

Take the example of time measurement. We perceive the day or the year, which is easily intelligible and fairly repetitive, as the unit of time and subdivide it to fix the duration of a second. But we know that the actual length of the day or the year varies. The atomic clock which fixes the pulses of the cesium atom at par with the classical second is also not precise. Since our unit is approximate, according to chaos theory it will lead to entirely different pictures every time. In fact this is the secret of evolutionary cycles – each cycle starts out similar (not same) but evolves differently from other cycles.

Objects are perceived in broadly two ways by the sensory organs. The ocular, auditory and psychological functions related to these follow action at a distance principle (homogenous field interaction). The tactile, taste and olfactory functions are always contact functions (discrete interaction). This is proved by the functions of mirror neurons. When we see or hear some actions or sounds at a distance, i.e. when disturbance generated by the objects travel in space as light or sound waves and reaches the field set up by our eyes or ears, it acts in the same way as a charged object when brought near a neutral object. The effect of such interaction is its operation.

In the case of visual perception, the neurons get polarized like the neutral object and create a mirror image impression in the field of our eye (like we prepare a casting), which is transmitted to the specific areas of brain through the neurons, where it creates the opposite impression in the sensory receptacles. This impression is compared with the stored memory of the objects in our brain. If the impression matches, we recognize the object as such or note it for future reference. This is how we see objects and not because light from the object reaches our retina. Only a small fraction of the incoming light from the object reaches our eyes, which can’t give full vision. We don’t see objects in the dark because there is no visible range of radiation to interact with our eyes. Thus, what we see is not the object proper, but the radiation emitted by it, which comes from the area surrounding its confinement - the orbitals.

Since the brain acts like the CPU joining all data bases, the responses are felt in other related fields in the brain also. When we see an event without actually participating in it, our mental activity shows as if we are actually participating in it. Such behavior of the neurons is well established in medical science and psychology. The auditory mechanism functions in a broadly similar way, though the exact mechanism is slightly different.

But when we feel an object through touch, we ignore the radiation because neither our eyes can touch nor our hands can see. Here the mass of our hand comes in contact with the mass of the object, which is confined. The same principle applies for our taste and smell functions. Till the object and not the field set up by it touches our tongue or nose (through convection or diffusion), we cannot feel the taste or smell. Mass has the property of accumulation and spread. Thus, it joins with the mass of our skin, tongue or nose to give its perception. This way, what we see is different from what we touch. These two are described differently by the two perceptions. Thus we can’t get accurate inputs to model a digital computer.

There is a deep, foundational reason why reality, which is purely analog, behaves in a digital way. We will briefly discuss it. Questions regarding singularity are often by-passed. But unless space and mass existed, what exploded into what at the big bang? The history of scientific inventions shows that wherever infinity appears in an equation, it points to some novel phenomenon or some missing parameters. Now big bounce has replaced big bang. Some say it hints at colliding galaxies. But the clue is hidden in the nature of the universe.

Inside atoms, protons and electrons with the help of neutrinos combine to create neutrons in a continuously reversible process. Atoms and molecules mix in different proportions to create all objects. The period of creation through combination culminates in the opposite process of devolution through disintegration – first to atoms and then to elementary particles. At singularity, the particles lose confinement and dissolve to create a field of uniform density. Without density variation, there is no unit to measure it. Hence the singularity. The field has three properties – stress, impedance and inertia. While stress and impedance that generate opposite forces during creation tend towards equilibrium, inertia of motion slows down to zero at singularity with corresponding increase in inertia of restoration8 (elasticity). This creates an instability and the reverse process starts with a bang. At that time the primordial soup was having the same density – stress and impedance at equilibrium. Stress overcomes impedance and moves at great velocity. This creates a bow shock effect which hinders its velocity to bring it down to zero. Before it finally stops, it cuts off a big volume. This is the cosmos. Then impedance takes over and there is a negative flow, which also stops at certain levels (√10). Thereafter it expands again slowly not in linear motion, but spin, for reasons to be discussed later. These are the closed universes. The second motion is called inflation.

Different forces are generated due to the operation of stress, impedance and inertia. These are like lumps confined by opposing forces. Inertia of restoration brings in equilibrium and thereby creates points of stability (ground) around which stress and impedance interact with different proportions to generate 3 x 5 = 15 different forces from the same stuff. The continuous symmetry braking creates mass and energy and provides variety and the various constants of Nature that leads to a digital description of the universe. If impedance overcomes stress, it becomes the confined particle with mass and positive charge that creates the nucleus. Otherwise it becomes the field with negative charge that confines mass. Their combination in specific ways makes all bodies. The primordial field confines all particles like islands in an ocean – not the raisin in pie model. Only this way we can unite all forces of Nature. We have a complete model9 for this.

Discrete models like cellular automata can be effective approaches to physics. Rule 110, which requires an infinite number of localized patterns to be embedded within an infinitely repeating background pattern, can be the basis. But unless we know how the images are generated, we would end up disappointed. The background pattern is fourteen cells wide and repeats itself exactly every seven iterations. The images are alien to modern physics though not for us.


1. String theory, which was developed with a view to harmonize General Relativity with Quantum theory, is said to be a high order theory where other models, such as super-gravity and quantum gravity appear as approximations. String theory comes in five different formulations, each of which covers a restricted range of situations. A network of mathematical connections links the different string theories into one overarching system called M-theory. Unlike super-gravity, string theory is said to be a consistent and well-defined theory of quantum gravity, and therefore calculating the value of the cosmological constant from it should, at least in principle, be possible. On the other hand, the number of vacuum states associated with it seems to be quite large, and none of these features three large spatial dimensions, broken super-symmetry, and a small cosmological constant. The features of string theory which are at least potentially testable - such as the existence of super-symmetry and cosmic strings - are not specific to string theory. In addition, the features that are specific to string theory - the existence of strings - either do not lead to precise predictions or lead to predictions that are impossible to test with current levels of technology. With its talk of D-branes, 10 or 11 dimensional universes and a myriad of possible solutions: 10500 at the last count – string theory looks more like an arcane branch of mathematics than tangible physics. It has not told us anything new about the real world, despite almost 40 years of trying. There are many unexplained questions relating to the strings. For example, given the measurement problem of quantum mechanics, what happens when a string is measured? Does the uncertainty principle apply to the whole string? Or does it apply only to some section of the string being measured? Does string theory modify the uncertainty principle? If we measure its position, do we get only the average position of the string? If the position of a string is measured with arbitrarily high accuracy, what happens to the momentum of the string? Does the momentum become undefined as opposed to simply unknown? What about the location of an end-point? If the measurement returns an end-point, then which end-point? Does the measurement return the position of some point along the string? (The string is said to be a Two dimensional object extended in space. Hence its position cannot be described by a finite set of numbers and thus, cannot be described by a finite set of measurements.) How do the Bell’s inequalities apply to string theory?

2. Particle-particle, Particle-field total interaction, particle-field partial interaction, field-field interaction.

3. Un-mathematical physics: Most of what is called as “mathematics” in modern science fails the test of logical consistency that is a corner stone for judging the truth content of a mathematical statement. For example, the Schrödinger equation was devised to find the probability of finding the particle in the narrow region between x and x+dx, which is denoted by P(x) dx. The function P(x) is the probability distribution function or probability density, which is found from the wave function ψ(x) in the equation P(x) = [ψ(x)]2. The wave function is determined by solving the Schrödinger’s differential equation: d2ψ/dx2 + 8π2m/h2 [E-V(x)]ψ = 0, where E is the total energy of the system and V(x) is the potential energy of the system. By using a suitable energy operator term, the equation is written as Hψ = Eψ. The equation is also written as iħ ∂/∂t
ψ› = H
ψ›, where the left hand side represents iħ times the rate of change with time of a state vector. The right hand side equates this with the effect of an operator, the Hamiltonian, which is the observable corresponding to the energy of the system under consideration. The symbol ψ indicates that it is a generalization of Schrödinger’s wave-function. The way the equation has been written, it appears to be an equation in one dimension, but in reality it is a second order equation signifying a two dimensional field, as the original equation and the energy operator contain a term x2. The method of the generalization of the said Schrödinger equation to the three spatial dimensions does not stand mathematical scrutiny. A third order equation implies volume. Addition of three areas does not generate volume and neither x+y+z ≠ (x.y.z) nor x2+y2+z2 ≠ (x.y.z). Thus, there is no wonder that it has failed to explain spectra other than hydrogen. The so-called success in the case of helium and lithium spectra gives results widely divergent from observation.

The probability calculations needed to work out the chance of finding an electron (say) in a particular place at a particular time actually depend on calculating the square of the complex number corresponding to that particular state of the electron. But calculating the square of a complex variable does not simply mean multiplying it by itself since it is not the same as a real number. Instead, another variable, a mirror image version called the complex conjugate is considered, by changing the sign in front of the imaginary part (if it was + it becomes - and vice versa). The two complex numbers are then multiplied together to give the probability. This shows that, truly it is not squaring, but a mathematical manipulation as the negative sign implies physical non-existence of the second term like the physical non-existence of a mirror image. If A has 5 apples and he gives it to B, then only B has those five apples and A is said to have -5 apples to signify his ownership of the five apples physically with B. Similarly, the mirror image does not make two objects, but only one real object and the other physically non-existent image. This is not mathematics, as mathematics deals with numbers, which is a characteristic of physical objects. Similarly, mathematically all operations involving infinity are void. Hence renormalization is not mathematical. The brute force approach where several parameters are arbitrarily reduced to zero or unity is again not mathematical, as the special conditions that govern the equality sign for balancing cause and effect are ignored. The arbitrary changes change the characteristic of the system. If we treat the length of all fingers as unity, then we cannot hold an object properly. There are innumerable instances of un-mathematical manipulation in the name of mathematics.

The requirement that all fundamental theories be presented within a concise mathematical framework virtually prevented serious theoretician from ever considering a non-field theory because of its mathematical complexities. The “mathematics” involved in field theories to describe events are simple and concise when compared with the “mathematics” of the same event in non-field terminology. Non-field theories are denied serious consideration because they cannot be given a precise mathematical description. Even if someone was able to develop a precise set of non-field equations, they would likely be so complex, mystifying and un-mathematical that only few mathematicians would be able to understand them.

4. Forces are not linearly additive: Suppose we are crossing a river 60 meters wide by a motor boat from West to East with a velocity of 4 m/s directly across the river. Suppose that the river was moving with a velocity of 3 m/s due North. How much time it would take to cross the river? The river current influences the motion of the boat and carries it downstream. The motor boat may be moving with a velocity of 4 m/s directly across the river, yet the resultant velocity of the boat will be greater than 4 m/s and at an angle in the downstream direction. While the speedometer of the boat may read 4 m/s, its speed with respect to an observer on the shore will be greater than 4 m/s. The resultant velocity of the boat is the vector sum of the boat velocity and the river velocity. Since the boat heads straight across the river and since the current is always directed straight downstream, the two vectors are at right angles to each other. Thus, the magnitude of the resultant will be: (4.0 m/s)2 + (3.0 m/s)2 = R2 or 16 m2/s2 + 9 m2/s2 = R2 Or 25 m2/s2 = R2 or R = 5m/s.

The direction of the resultant is the counterclockwise angle of rotation which the resultant vector makes with due East. This angle can be determined using a trigonometric function: tan (θ) = (3/4).

Hence θ = 36.9 degrees.

With the above data, let us calculate how much time does it take the boat to travel shore to shore and what distance downstream does the boat reach the opposite shore? The river is 60-meters wide. That is, the distance from shore to shore as measured straight across the river is 60 meters. The time to cross this 60-meter wide river can be determined by rearranging and substituting into the average speed equation:

Time taken = distance / (average speed)

The distance of 60 m can be substituted into the numerator. But what about the denominator? What value should be used for average speed? Should 3 m/s (the current velocity), 4 m/s (the boat velocity) or 5 m/s (the resultant velocity) be used as the average speed value for covering the 60 meters? With what average speed is the boat traversing the 60 meter wide river? The value of 5 m/s is the speed at which the boat covers the diagonal dimension of the river, but the diagonal distance across the river is not known in this case. Similarly, if one knew the distance from the position diagonally across from the initial position to where the boat reach the opposite shore downstream, then the river speed of 3m/s could be used to calculate the time to reach the opposite shore. And finally, if we consider the river width of 60m, then the boat speed of 4m/s could be used to calculate the time to reach the opposite shore.

In the above problem, the river width is 60 m. Hence the average speed of 4 m/s (average speed in the direction straight across the river) should be substituted into the equation to determine the time:

Time taken = 60m/ (4m/s) = 15 seconds.

It requires 15 seconds for the boat to travel across the river. During these 15 seconds of crossing the river, the boat also drifts downstream.

Distance = Time taken x (average speed) = 15 seconds x (3m/s) = 45 m. or

Time taken = 45m/ (3m/s) = 15 seconds, which is correct.

The boat is carried 45 meters downstream from the point opposite to the initial point during the 15 seconds it takes to cross the river. Now to calculate what distance downstream does the boat actually traveled to reach the opposite shore, we have to apply the formula:

(60 m)2 + (45 m2) = (75m)2. Hence the answer is 75 m.

The time taken is: Time taken = 75m / (5m/s) = 15 seconds, which is correct.

Thus, whichever way we calculate, we come to the same conclusion. If we change the speed of the river current to 5m/s so that the river current is faster than the boat speed, we come to the same conclusion about time taken. In this case only the distance downstream from the point opposite to the initial point changes to 75 m and the total distance actually traveled changes to about 96 m. If we use other speeds, the result remains similar. This would mean that an across-the-river variable would be independent of (i.e., not be affected by) a downstream variable. The time to cross the river is dependent upon the velocity at which the boat crosses the river. It is the component of motion directed across the river (i.e., the boat velocity) which affects the time to travel the distance directly across the river. The component of motion perpendicular to this direction - the current velocity - only affects the distance which the boat travels down the river. Since the across-the-river motion and the down stream motion are different induced by different forces, it proves that different forces coexist, but unlike mass, do not linearly couple with each other. They had to be squared for calculating non-linear motion provided they belong to the same category and act on the same body. Forces of different categories like gravitational forces and electromagnetic forces are never coupled.

5. SPACETIME: Newton thought that the Earth and the tree with the apple are stationary in space. The Earth pulls the apple through gravity. Einstein proposed that the mass of bodies caused the space and time around them to move as a curvature. According to him, the four dimensional grid of space-time occupied by the apple curved towards the Earth so that while the apple’s spatial and temporal coordinates moved, it remained inertially stationary like the Earth. In other words the space in-between curved so that interval between the apple and the Earth reduced with corresponding increase with the gap between the apple and the stem. His idea of space-time was space with motion through it, which implies time. This can be visualized by the example of a leaf floating on a river stream. The water flows and the leaf is stationary with reference to the water table. But to an observer from the shore, the leaf appears to move which is not correct. Similarly, this view of gravity is not correct. The leaf is physically moving away or moving towards the observer. There is no such repulsive force for gravity even though anti-gravity has been postulated by some. Secondly, the leaf is not dragged by the curvature of the river water, but it flows due to the flow of the river current which is independent of the masses of the tree or the leaf. Moreover, the leaf flows with it only after it falls on water due to a different force. This implies that the spacetime curvature is independent of the mass of the tree and the apple and the fall of the apple is not due to spacetime curvature, but due to the existence of a different force. Thus spacetime curvature is not an accurate description of the phenomenon. This problem can only be explained if we treat gravity as a force by which all particles interact with its analog “field” - which has a different dynamics. Thus, gravity calculation is done by treating the bodies as point particles, because the body with its internal dynamics acts as a whole. There is no need for the non-existent graviton or Higg’s particle to explain it. All problems relating to gravity can be solved if we take into account the stress, impedance and inertia of restoration and calculate gravity. This leads to seven types of gravitational interaction.

6. Superposition: When two waves of different heights move through each other, the amplitudes of the waves add up to give the total amplitude of the resulting wave. If one wave is at a crest at one point and another similar wave is at a trough at the same point, the amplitude of the two waves add up to zero. We see no wave but a plane surface. This principle of adding individual wave amplitudes to get the total amplitude is called the superposition principle. In such a case, we look at a state, whose perception is different from the causal state underlying it. What is seen as a plane surface really contained a crest and a trough of equal or comparable magnitude before the moment of their interaction. But at that “here-now” of their interaction, neither is visible. The plane surface might have arisen due to the interaction of waves of any magnitude, frequency and wave-length. We can’t predict with certainty about their frequency and wave-length unless we actually “observe” and “measure” it immediately before their interaction. But because of their dynamical nature, we can’t measure both their momentum and position (frequency and wave-length) simultaneously. They will not be visible as a similar crest and a trough after that moment. Thus, the plane surface that came out of a crest and a trough and then gets converted to something else – may be another crest and a trough - remains in a state of superposition of all probabilities for us except for the instant when we are actually observing it. This refers to the dynamical attributes of the wave. But its static attributes, like volume or mass or chemical composition, remain unchanged and thus, is not in a super-position of states. We must distinguish between these two aspects.

7. Please refer to our book: Vaidic Theory of Numbers (2005). For copy write to:

8. Inertia of restoration. Please refer to our book: Vaidic Theory of Numbers. Inertia shows that application of force is momentary. The body moves and loses contact with the force, but moves due to inertia. If the inertia is retarded due to friction and the force is moving in the same direction, then the application of force may appear to be continuous. But actually, it catches up with the retarded body and pushes it again. Once a force is applied, the body as a whole responds to the field. If there is no variation in the field density, it moves unhindered. This is inertia of motion. The mental faculties of thought also function this way. However, the mechanisms for its retardation are different. We have proved mathematically that there is nothing called inertia of rest. It is the equilibrium state only. When the body is not rigid and when the applied force is not enough to completely displace the body, the partial displacement generates inertia in the opposite direction. This is elasticity.

9. The following are a few salient testable predictions contained in our forthcoming book:


1. The accepted value of the electric charge of quarks contains an error element of 3%. In stead of +⅔ and -⅓, it should be +7/11 and -4/11. Thus, taking the measured charge of electrons as the unit, the value of the electric charge of protons is +10/11 and that of neutrons -1/11. The residual negative charge is not apparent as negative charge always confines positive charge and flows towards the concentration of positive charge - nucleus. Hence it is not felt outside. It is not revealed in measurement due to the nature of calibration of the measuring instruments. This excess negative charge confines the positive charge (nearly 2000 times in magnitude) which is revealed in atomic explosions. Charge neutral only means the number of protons and electrons are equal.

2. The value of the gravitational constant G is not the same for all systems. Just like the value for acceleration due to gravity g varies from position to position, the value of G also varies between systems.

3. The value of the fine-structure constant α that determines the electromagnetic field strength as calculated by us theoretically from our atomic orbital theory is 7/960 (1/137) when correlated to the strong interaction (so-called zero energy level) and 7/900 (1/128) when correlated to the weak interaction (80 GeV level). There are 5 more values that determine the structure of the orbitals in the atomic spectra. Hence the physically available values of the s orbitals (principal quantum number) are restricted to n = 7, though theoretically, it can have any positive integer value.

4. There is nothing like Lorentz variant inertial mass. It has never been proved.