Friday, September 26, 2014




            Look at the structure of any equation. The initial condition or parameters are represented by the left hand side. The equality (or inequality) sign describes the special conditions to be met to start any reaction or interaction such as the critical temperature in a chemical reaction or minimum energy requirement to break the inertia of a system, etc. Given the initial conditions, the right hand side describes the theorized outcome of the interaction. We can vary the parameters of the left hand side. That is our freewill (though our choices or degrees of freedom may be limited). The right hand side of the equation will vary correspondingly as long as the equality sign holds. Once the initial parameters are set, the outcome - is predetermined. The equality sign - the special conditions - are also predetermined limiting freewill; otherwise there will be no theory.

            Before proceeding further, let us look at Nature. The flow of energy (including fluids where the binding energy is less compared to solids) is always from higher density to lower density - they self-organize or tend to achieve equal concentration or equality (sama rasa). The up quarks and down quarks interchange perpetually to convert protons to neutrons and vice versa. Planets wobble in their orbits to self organize the barycenter when it is disturbed due to interaction of various bodies that revolve around the star. Sea water level self organizes through high and low tides. Are these freewill or deterministic?

            Let us take another example. The essential ingredients like water, minerals (food), etc, in plants defy gravity to move upwards (Oordhwa srotaa). The flow in all other living beings except human beings is always slanted (Teeryak srotaa). In human beings, it is essentially from head downwards (Arvaak srotaa). In fact, the flow of semen during intercourse follows this pattern - so that only human beings can copulate facing each other in their normal posture with male up (give out) and female down (take in). All others have to compulsorily bend or turn differently for copulation (Teeryak yoni).

            To understand the gravity defying mechanism of plants, let us consider the effect of gravity on astronauts. When on Earth, the fluids in the human body are distributed unevenly because of gravity. Most fluid pools in the lower extremities, leaving very little fluid in the top of the body. But if we go to space, in the first few weeks most astronauts appear to have a puffy head and skinny legs. The fluid in their bodies redistributes evenly when gravity is not playing a significant role in their biological systems. After some time in orbit, the body adapts to the new distribution of fluids and the astronauts do not appear as puffy – it self-regulates. In the near zero relative gravity of space, muscles are not needed to support the body. Instead of maintaining the usual base of muscle mass needed for life on Earth, astronauts’ bodies tend to get rid of unnecessary tissues. Astronauts have to exercise for two hours a day on the space station to maintain a healthy amount of muscle mass. The exercise also helps prevent bone-density loss. Each month, astronauts could lose up to 1 percent of their bone density if they do not get enough exercise.

According to a report published in the magazine PLOS ONE:  DOI: 10.1371/ journal.pone.0106207, there is a large discrepancy between physiological and functional thresholds about which we should be cautious when preparing for exposure to low gravity fields. The strength of gravity required from the physiological threshold for linear acceleration in up and down directions has been estimated to be 15 percent of Earth’s gravity – nearly equal to the Moon’s gravity. The perception of up-down is determined not only by gravity, but also visual information, when available, and assumptions about the orientation of the body. Here on Earth, plants and animals are exposed to the same amount of gravity as human beings. Yet, their body functions as if they are in space – distributing body fluids equally everywhere. If the flow is in the direction of growth; then humans should be reptiles – body mass distributed down like a fluid. How to explain this?

            All our biological functions are powered by heart and lungs that pump blood and oxygen. Once the heart starts beating in the mother’s womb, the process continues perpetually till death. The mechanism can be described using deterministic physical laws (we measure blood pressure to know the rate and pace at which blood is released by the heart). But how does the initial heart beat begin? (It will require another paper.) A cell can sense its internal errors during metabolism and self organize. The bird’s flight path in V formation is an effect of self organization for easier navigation. Unlike such conscious functions as locomotion, we do not have any choice or freewill in such self organization. This is a type of energy flow that follows mechanical rules. Thus it has to be deterministic. How do we differentiate between self organization and functions like locomotion?

            Self determination and freewill is the same thing. It is different from self organization/regulation, which is totally deterministic – seeking equilibrium. Self determination has limited degrees of freedom. We can determine whether to walk or where to walk, but we cannot walk everywhere – like, on water or in air. We cannot walk beyond a limit. We cannot determine whether or how our heart or lungs should function. They are in perpetual motion, but also self organize when needed (pulse rate or heart beat adjusts to stress and strain); hinting at special deterministic conditions for their functioning.

            Dr. Shapiro and others concluded that ‘Consciousness’ is the universal and ubiquitous foundation of life. But what is consciousness? In quantum mechanics, there is the famous Copenhagen interpretation of Bohr, which talks about observer created reality. The observer is said to be an intelligent agent. There is much controversy about the observer. Is the Schrödinger’s cat an intelligent agent? Similarly, there is search for ‘life’ and ‘extra-terrestrial intelligence’ on different planets and galaxies. Though life or consciousness has been defined variously, till date there is no precise definition of what constitutes life. We will discuss these questions from the perspective of Ayurveda.


            According to Charaka, “Shareerendriyasattwaatmasamyoga dhaari jeevitam” - life is the conglomeration of body, sensory agencies, mind and Self. Elsewhere it has been said that “Sendriyam chetanadravyam, neerindriyam achetanam” - existence or non-existence of the sensory agencies differentiate between living and inert. Also, “Praana dhaaranam jeevanam” – one having prana vayu is called living. Here prana vayu is the first among the five functions of the vital energy, which, according to Ashtaanga Hrhdayam, activates all sensory agencies. Thus, possession of sensory agencies is the sign of life. Here the sensory organs, which are body matter, must be distinguished from sensory agencies – “indriyam”, literally meaning dedicated to “Indra”, which, according to Shatapatha Braahmanam 6-1-1-2, means; instrumental through energizing (indhana). For example, eyes are sense organs. But we can see only when eyes have the capacity to receive electromagnetic impulse and send it to the brain via mind for processing. The energy that powers the capacity for such reception and transmission is sensory agency – “indriyam” (it includes mind).

            According to this classification, the plants have only one primary sensory agency: touch (sparsha), which incorporates all other senses in a secondary manner. The virus and bacteria (swedaja) have two primary sensory agencies: touch (sparsha) and taste (rasa). However, the word taste does not capture the full implication of rasa, which indicates the chemical composition. For example, all sugar varieties have a chemical composition like C6H12O6, C11H22O11, etc., which can be written as Cx (H2O)x. According to Ayurveda, “madhura rasa” or sugar is formed by equal combination of prhthwi and jal tattwas. Here prhthwi means all solids (yat kaathinyam, tat prhthwi). Since ours is carbon based life, addition of carbon (prhthwi) and water (Jal) in equal proportions becomes sugar and confirm the Ayurvedic formulation. The insects (keeta) have three primary sensory agencies: touch (sparsha), taste (rasa) and form (rupa). The animals (chatushpada) and those produced from eggs (andaja - birds, snakes, etc) have four primary sensory agencies. They are deficient in one of the sensory agencies. However, they develop extraordinary capability in one of their sensory agencies. Only humans have all five primary sensory agencies in a balanced manner. None of these has extraordinary powers.

            How do our sensory agencies function? At any moment, our sense organs are bombarded by a multitude of stimuli. But at any instant only one of them is given a clear channel to go up to the thalamus and then to the cerebral cortex, so that like photographic frames, we perceive one discrete frame at every instant, but due to the high speed of their reception, mix it up - so that it appears as continuous. Unlike the sensory agencies that are subject specific (eyes can only receive electromagnetic radiation, ears only sound, etc.); the transport system within the body functions for all types of sensory impulses. This occurs against concentration gradients with the input energy like the sodium-potassium pump in our body, which moves the two ions in opposite directions across the plasma membrane through break down of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Concentrations of the two ions on both sides of the cell membrane are interdependent, suggesting that the same carrier transports both ions. Similarly, the same carrier transports the external stimuli from sensory agencies to the cerebral cortex and back as a command. This carrier is the “indriyam” called mind. The existence of mind is inferred from the knowledge or lack of it about external stimuli. Only if the mind transports different external impulses to the brain for mixing and comparison with the stored data, we (Self) know about that (for the first time impulse received about something, there is no definite ‘knowledge’).

            The brain acts like a computer. In communication technology, in addition to encryption (language phrased in terms of algorithms executed on certain computing machines - sequence of symbols), compression (quantification and reduction of complexity - grammar) and data transmission (sound, signals), there is a necessity of mixing information (mass of text, volume of intermediate data, time over which such process will be executed) related to different aspects (readings generated from different fields), with a common code (data structure - strings) to bring it to a format “it is like/ not like that”. Such mixing is done through data, text, spread-sheets, pictures, voice and video. Data are discretely defined fields. What the user sees is controlled by software - a collection of computer programs. What the hardware sees is bytes and bits.

In perception, data are the response of our sensory agencies to individual external stimuli. Text is the excitation of the neural network in specific regions of the brain. Spreadsheets are the memories of earlier perception. Pictures are the inertia of motion generated in memory (thought) after a fresh impulse, linking related past experiences. Voice is the disturbance created due to the disharmony between the present thought and the stored image (this or that, yes or no). Video is the net thought that emerges out of such interaction. Software is the memory. Hardware includes the neural network. Bytes and bits are the changing interactions of the sense organs (string) with the respective fields generated by objects evolving in time.

It requires an agent to mix these signals and convert them to electro-chemical information and submit to a conscious agent (operator) to cognize and utilize them. In perception, the former tasks are done by a transitory neural activity in brain called intellect. Though, it is not directly perceptible, it is inferred from its actions - firing of positrons in specific areas of brain during perception. Hence even after the breath stops, a person may not be brain dead as the intellect (and not the mind) may still be functional. While mind facilitates the transport of various external impulses, the mixing and interpretation of the state of superposition of various thoughts/inputs in memory (vikalpa), is done by this transitory intellect. The Conscious Self that cognizes is different from all these.

We can know about something that exists only when it is revealed to our Self for observation. All revelations involve instantaneous transfer of energy, whose existence is realized only during change of state of the observed. Since the basic concepts cognized by all persons at all times are similar, and since the cognition of “I” is always related to all perceptions, it must be universal. It does not grow or reduce. It is not affected by these transformations, like the Sun is not affected when the water flows or is muddied and its reflection is affected by such actions. When water flows from a higher position to lower down, if it faces an obstruction, it takes whatever channel is available and goes till its surface balance is maintained. On the other side (side facing Earth), it acquires the shape of the Earth’s surface. It is like casting of a die for using mould to create a shape. Similarly, all impulses carried by mind is mixed and presented through reflection by intellect for observation by Conscious Self, which is the repository of all concepts. After it is compared with the data bank (memory) of concepts associated with Self, we cognize as ‘I know this (the object) is like that (the concept)’. That ‘Knower’ or ‘Observer’ is Consciousness.


The Universe is called jagat because everything in it is ever moving – from atomic level to galactic level. Thus, action is the essence of the Universe. Actions are of two types: 1) automated perpetual action, such as the time evolution of elementary particles or our internal body functions that generates a fixed inertia (repetitive), and 2) directed composite action (efforts through freewill) that generates differential inertia, depending upon the nature of the action inducing such inertia. Whenever individual actions are grouped with a view to get desired results (apekshaa buddhi krhta karma), it generates an induced inertia (karma vyuha) that changes the nature of time evolution. In automated action (upekshaa buddhi krhta karma) like those of galaxies, quarks, atoms or our internal body systems, etc, they perpetually evolve deterministically in time.

The inertia generated in directed composite actions with freewill may change the nature of perpetual time evolution. The performers of such action are bound (vaddha jeeva) by the induced reaction till this inertia ceases and they come over to the automated time evolution (nihshreyas). All other (free) species (mukta jeeva) are called perpetually evolutionary species (aashwatthika jeeva). They have two divisions: fixed evolutionary (Brahma aashwatthika) and functional evolutionary (niyata karma aashwatthika). The first category is inert like galaxy, Sun, Earth, Moon, atoms, etc, which have fixed orbital positions. Our body is constituted of these. The other category is conscious, which does not have a fixed position and is in perpetual motion (quantum or devaõh). Thus, there is no fixed position in the quantum world. Our sensory agencies belong to this category.

 According to Rhk Veda 1-164-15, the sensory agency – “indriyam” are “Devajaah” – expressed through such energies as heat (Agni), air (Vayu), radiation (Aaditya) etc. Though inherently mobile in nature, they remain fixed in their spheres (Teshamishtaani vihitaani dhaamashah). Yet they create deformations in fixed living organisms (sthaataa) by deforming themselves through association (Sthaatre rejante vikrhtaani roopashah). Coupling between these two categories in specific proportions (eigen value) starts life forms. Extreme change in their proportion (ativartana) leads to destruction of that life form. Then, the different components disintegrate and merge with similars. Self is conscious and is different because it has no motion or time evolution.

            This is borne out from the fact that 99% of the genes coding for proteins – body matter - present in the human genome also appear to be present in the rat genome. Similarly, humans and chimpanzees share about 75% of their genes, when factoring the so-called “junk DNA”. Nothing is junk – everything has its use somewhere. Gene expression is nothing but chemistry. Genes are body matter and activities of the expressed proteins depend upon the mix of fixed evolutionary and functional evolutionary components. The rats are used as models for studying human diseases in a limited way because both contain the same components, though in different proportions, which explains the differences in their phenotypes. This also explains the higher intelligence level of human beings.


When we become aware of some deficiency about something, and also have the knowledge of the mechanism (based on our past experience, which may or may not be the right choice) to fulfill that desire; the brain directs functional organs to execute such action. This is our freewill. If the conditions necessary for their fructification are met, the outcome is deterministic. Our stored knowledge (memory), which is based on previous perceptions, is incomplete, because our life span is limited. Similarly, our sense organs and measuring instruments have the ability to report time evolution only in phases – not totally (space) or continuously (time). We may observe the building up of a storm, but we will not be able to link it to the flapping of the wings of a butterfly thousands of kilometers away, whose chain reaction led to the storm (chaos theory). This introduces uncertainty in our readings/ knowledge. Thus, we are incapable of getting full knowledge to meet our desired result. This is the essence of the dictum “karmanyevaadhikaaraste maa phaleshu kadaachana” – you have control over your actions, but not over the outcome of such actions, because there always is uncertainty about other factors that do influence the outcome. This; and not Heisenberg’s formulation of quantum mechanics as modified by Ozawa and others, is the real Uncertainty Principle. The equations to measure uncertainty are really meaningless.

Because of the uncertainty, self-determination or freewill is severely restricted. It has limited choices or degrees of freedom. If there is any God or ITs equivalent; by definition; IT is Omnipresent, Omniscient and Omnipotent. Being ITs creations; we also have these qualities, but due to our limitations, these exhibit themselves differently. ITs Omnipresence (Chit shakti), which implies eternity, is our time (kaala). ITs Omniscience (Gnyaana Shakti), which implies total knowledge, is our limited knowledge (Vidyaa-Avidyaa). ITs Omnipotence (Kriyaa Shakti), which implies capability to do everything, is our limited capability for action (kalaa). IT gets whatever IT desires (Icchhaa shakti). This manifests in us as desire (raaga). Pursuit of desire is infatuation (anuraaga).
Differences in desire that induces freewill for action; are based on three factors:    1) physical or genetic composition that has its own predetermined chemical properties,  2)sensory experiences of the past and the memory associated with it that lead to infatuation (anuraaga) or its corollaries or opposite emotions, and 3) limited disturbance to the ratio (both intra and inter) of fixed evolutionary and functional evolutionary components of the body (depravity or affluence). These lead to diversity of response to the same situation. Diversity is a property of groups, which has many dimensions across the social spectrum. Susceptibility to external conditions or emotions is an example of diversity of genetic composition. This can be changed by chemistry, but unless one is careful, this can be dangerous. Oxytocin, a nine–amino acid peptide – is instrumental in monogamous behavior of prairie voles known to pick a lifelong mate. Later studies demonstrated that the chemical contributes to trust and social interactions in various animals, including humans, though it has not been studies enough for its effect on humans. However, oxytocin and a related molecule called vasopressin are known to promote various types of social behavior. It can intensify negative memory of social experience and increase aggression and violence towards persons who are not part of the same social group.

Happiness or fear or hate or ignorance upon seeing someone or something is an example of diversity of past experiences. Disturbance to the ratio of fixed evolutionary and functional evolutionary components of the body (atiyoga or mithyaa yoga) in various proportions (kalaa) is sickness - both physical (including material) and mental. Aided by time evolution (parinaama) and conflicting emotions (pragnyaaparaadha), this creates the feeling of uneasiness. Economic depravity can be shattering. Mental disorder, substance dependence, and engaging in economic survival strategies explain destitute behavior among homeless women and homeless or jobless men. Rape and theft are outcomes of depravity. Affluence can be of different types: related to money, physical strength, authority, indulgence, etc. It leads to a tendency of lording over everything and lack of proper value system. A few people waste more food than the world’s hungry needs.

Limited knowledge makes humans curious creatures. Curiosity drives a search for explanations. While this search may fit in the realm of science, it is not confined to the pursuits of scientists and intellectuals alone. People have strong and systematic preferences for some types of explanations over others. For example, people prefer explanations that provide a function or purpose, which, psychologists call “teleological explanations.” In many cases, we are more attracted to teleological explanations than to “mechanistic” alternatives, such as explaining something by examining the process. Sometimes we may believe that not everything has a purpose. Also, if we over-explain, it may lead to false beliefs; such as conspiracy theories. It is based on some truth content, but diverges to explain different data points by appeal to a group or entity, trying to make sense of everything in unified way. Sometimes the data points are coincidental, or come up by chance. Besides accuracy - having explanations that fit the data - we also consider simplicity and breadth of an explanation. People often prefer teleology and ensure that explanations cohere with our prior beliefs and generate a sense of understanding. But many things are multi-causal, requiring complex explanations. This creates diversity.

Can education help? Talent is inborn, though skill can be learnt and developed. Conveying science to lay people often involves the translation of complex terms into simpler ones, the use of metaphors, and the removal of some details. In the process, some important information may be lost. People sometimes seem to value complicated explanations more. One study showed that when completely irrelevant mathematics is added to the abstract of a scientific paper, non-experts judge the work as better. In another study, adding irrelevant neuroscientific information to psychological explanations made non-experts less effective at differentiating circular reasoning from non-circular explanations. Sometimes, we mistake the name of a phenomenon for an explanation of the event. There is a famous example from a play by Moliere: “Why do some pills make you sleepy?” Answer: “Because they have a dormitive virtue”. This does not actually explain anything, but introducing a concept such as ‘dormitive virtue might make one feel superior. Karl C Pauper calls it the “cult of incomprehensibility”. Many people do not know much about quarks or leptons, but believe that these terms play a useful explanatory role in contemporary physics, and that there are experts who do understand them. The reason for such behavior is lack of self confidence and a sense of control over one’s environment. Whenever they could not understand something, they believe in the superiority of the other who claims to know about it. Changing people’s sense of control can influence the kinds of scientific explanations they prefer: if one feels that one does not have control, she/he will be drawn to explanations that promise order and predictability (moorkham chhandonuvrhttena – control a fool by twisting facts).


            As has been shown above, freewill is actually not free – it has limited degrees of freedom. Self organization follows a pattern –radiating away (arka) from the central processing unit (high concentration or uktha) up to the confining limit (asiti). Since the central processing unit in humans is brain, the flow is downwards. Hence damage to brain kills or cripples humans. The central processing unit in plants is the root joint – hence the flow is upwards and damage to it kills plants. Our emotions are based on genetic imprint and past experiences. If we could map it properly, the chain of differential inertia can explain all behavior – the so-called freewill or choice. For example, anger is the sense of failure to control ones own surroundings. We become angry without properly analyzing the causes leading to the present situation. Hence the trick to control an angry person is to remind him of his past achievements (atyugram stutibhih). Ayurveda lists out the impulsive inertia (vega) that should be controlled and that for other natural feelings like the urge for urination, defacation, etc, not to be controlled. Similarly, attachment (experience of feeling good in the past - shraddhaa) towards someone considered superior is devotion (bhakti), towards someone inferior is affection (vaatsalya), towards equals is friendship (sakhya or maitry) and towards inert objects (including money, intoxicants, female/male body, etc) is lust (kaama). When these four emotions combine for the same object, it is love (rati). Love can be only between husband-wife and God-human. All others are lust.

Like non-living bodies, living organisms also obey mechanical laws of nature and act according to external forces to fulfill their needs, though, it is not self evident (paroksha priyaa hi Devaah Pratyaksha dwishah). All organisms - living or not - follow laws of nature. However, only living organisms can perceive through their sensory agencies when these impulses are reflected in the Conscious Self that illuminates every thing and is the repository of all knowledge (results of measurement) and processes. Since knowledge, i.e., result of measurement for any instant, is frozen for ever, Consciousness is universal, immutable, eternal, unmoving and timeless; thus, is the universal and ubiquitous foundation of life – it is the Observer of everything that are observables.

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Saturday, September 06, 2014


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ºÉ´ÉÇYÉÉä ʽþ ʶɴÉÉä ´ÉäÊkÉ ºÉnùºÉSSÉäι]õiÉÆ xÉÞhÉɨÉÂ* iÉäxÉɺÉÉè xÉÉxÉÖMÉÞ¼hÉÉÊiÉ ÊEòÎ\SÉiYɺªÉ MÉÖ®úÉäÌMÉ®úÉ*



The first ºÉÚjÉ of ¥ÉÀºÉÚjɨÉ is +lÉÉiÉÉä ¥ÉÀÊVÉYÉɺÉÉ. This also discusses the +xÉÖ¤ÉxvÉ& SÉiÉÖ¹]õªÉ¨É as follows: The Vedic descriptions can be divided into two categories: those relating to: 1) Consciousness (¥ÉÀ or +Éi¨ÉÉ), and 2) the physical Universe (ʴɶ´É¨ÉÂ). Here the word ¥ÉÀ stands for the subject (ʴɹɪÉ&). In the Vedas – especially in Upanishads - we find many apparently contradictory descriptions relating to ¥ÉÀ. The branch that lists them serially like a thread (ºÉÚjÉ) and resolves them (¨ÉÒ¨ÉÉƺɪÉÊiÉ), is called ¥ÉÀºÉÚjÉ or =kÉ®ú¨ÉÒ¨ÉÉƺÉÉ (=kÉ® because, according to Eò`öÉä{ÉÊxɹÉnÂù 4/1, - {É®úÉÎ\SÉJÉÉÊxÉ - our sense organs are directed outward. Hence we perceive the external world first and º´ÉªÉ¨¦ÉÚ ¥ÉÀ later). ÊVÉYÉɺÉÉ depicts the necessity (|ɪÉÉäVÉxÉ) for this book – resolution of such doubts. is used before reading the Vedas. +lÉ is used for other texts, which are essentially commentaries on Vedas - the repository of vɨÉÇ – eternal principles for humanity and knowledge of everything. It has no comparison (º¨ÉÞÊiÉ deals with religion – way of life in Sanatana Dharma, like the Sacred Texts of other religions). +lÉ means here-after (+xÉxiÉ®ú), which indicates the precondition for reading the text - the person worthy of studying this branch (+ÊvÉEòÉ®úÒ) must have read the Vedas before, because finding contradictions (ÊVÉYÉɺÉÉ) necessitating their resolution (¨ÉÒ¨ÉÉƺÉÉ) can arise only after reading Vedas. +iÉÉä depicts the relationship (ºÉ¨¤ÉxvÉ&) of resolving such contradictions through these teachings.


The second ºÉÚjÉ of ¥ÉÀºÉÚjɨÉ is VÉx¨ÉÉtºªÉ ªÉiÉ&*. Because Brahma (¥ÉÀ) is described as eternal - + and the ºÉÚjÉ contains the word VÉx¨ÉÉÊn (creation etc.), all commentators have taken the word +ºªÉ to mean the creation (ʴɶ´É¨ÉÂ) on the assumption that the word VÉx¨É stands for something that is created from a cause (VÉɪÉiÉä, =i{ÉÊkÉ&, VÉxÉxÉÆ, =nÂù¦É´É& etc). But according to MÉhÉÉlÉÇ-Eò±{ÉpÖù¨É& (which, like Tolkappiyam, follows Bäxpù ´ªÉÉEò®úhÉ) the root VÉxÉ also means |ÉÉnÖù¦ÉÉÇ´É. In that case, VÉx¨É refers to an act of ¥ÉÀ. That the word +ºªÉ does not imply the physical Universe (ʴɶ´É¨ÉÂ), is clear from the context ({ÉÚ´ÉÉÇ{É®ú ºÉRÂóMÉÊiÉ):

The subject here is ¥ÉÀ, which is unitary (¨ÉÉèʱÉEò) and fundamentally different from ʴɶ´É¨ÉÂ, which is compounded (ªÉÉèÊMÉEò). All perceptions (|ÉiªÉªÉ) are action based (®úVɺÉÉ =nÂùPÉÉÊ]õiɨÉÂ). Action (ÊGòªÉÉ) involves operation (´ªÉÉ{ÉÉ®ú). Operation (´ªÉÉ{ÉÉ®ú) reveals the transformation of one into various forms (º¡Úò®úhÉ) in a sequence (Gò¨É) . Such transformations (º¡Úò®úiÉÉ) are of two types: as +½þ¨É and as Â. The first is conscious (SÉäiÉxÉ) and related to ¥ÉÀ (ÊSÉpÚù{ÉÆ Ê½þ ºÉnùÉ ºÉiªÉÆ xÉÉÊSÉpÚù{ÉÆ EònùÉSÉxÉ), as all observations end with unchanging (+Gò¨Énù̶É) universal self +½þ¨É as “I know”. The observed  is related to ʴɶ´É¨É (VÉMÉzÉ ¦ÉÉ´ÉÉä xÉɦÉÉ´ÉÉä ¦ÉÉ´ÉɦÉÉ´ÉÉä ʴɱÉIÉhÉ) and inert (VÉb÷) as it evolves in time (Gò¨Énù̶É). Without any reference to the later, +ºªÉ in the ºÉÚjÉ means ¥ÉÀ - the subject (SÉäiÉxÉ +½þ¨ÉÂ) only; and not the creation (VÉb Â).

The next two ºÉÚjÉÉè confirm this view. The third ºÉÚjÉ is ¶ÉɺjɪÉÉäÊxÉi´ÉÉiÉÂ*. All commentators have interpreted the word ¶ÉɺjɪÉÉäÊxÉ as ¶ÉɺjɺªÉ ªÉÉäÊxÉ (¹É¹`öÒ iÉi{ÉÖ¯û¹É ºÉ¨ÉɺÉ) – the source of all Sacred Texts. Here the word ªÉÉäÊxÉ has been wrongly described as instrumental cause (ÊxÉʨÉkÉEòÉ®úhÉ) as ªÉÉäÊxÉ by itself is only the place of origin (|ɦɴÉ) and not the cause. It depends on two independent factors - ®äúiÉ and ®äúiÉÉävÉÉ (®äúiÉ|Énù Ê{ÉiÉÉ) for creation. The ®äúiÉÉävÉÉ is the instrumental cause (ÊxÉʨÉkÉEòÉ®úhÉ), with ®äúiÉ and ªÉÉäÊxÉ being the inherent or material cause (ºÉ¨É´ÉɪÉÒ or ={ÉÉnùÉxÉ or +É®ú¨¦ÉhÉ EòÉ®úhÉ) and the non-inherent or catalytic cause (+ºÉ¨É´ÉɪÉÒ EòÉ®úhÉ) respectively. The word ¶ÉɺjɪÉÉäÊxÉ can also mean ¶ÉɺjÉ ªÉÉäÊxÉ ªÉºªÉ (´É½Öþ¥ÉÒʽþ ºÉ¨ÉɺÉ) – IT (¥ÉÀ) can be known through (ªÉÉäÊxÉ - |ɦɴÉ) Sacred Texts (¶ÉɺjÉYÉÉxÉ) or transferred cognition. Thus, there are two different meanings for this ºÉÚjÉ, of which the later conforms to the context. The ºÉÚjÉ indicates one ®äúiÉÉävÉÉ as the instrumental cause (ÊxÉʨÉkÉEòÉ®úhÉ) and ®äúiÉ and ªÉÉäÊxÉ as constituent cause (={ÉÉnùÉxÉ EòÉ®úhÉ) and catalytic cause (+ºÉ¨É´ÉɪÉÒ EòÉ®úhÉ) respectively revealing three aspects of ¥ÉÀ, as described in ªÉVÉÖ´ÉäÇn 8/36 (discussed below). iÉiÉ in the fourth ºÉÚjÉiÉkÉÖ ºÉ¨Éx´ÉªÉÉiÉ - tries to show the compatibility (ºÉ¨Éx´ÉªÉ) of these three aspect of {É®ú¨¥ÉÀ (and not ¥ÉÀ as ={ÉÉnùÉxÉ EòÉ®úhÉ also). The word iÉÖ here stands for Ê´ÉÊxɶSɪÉä – a definitive resolution (ºÉ¨Éx´ÉªÉ) and not iÉlÉÉ as is generally commented.

According to ªÉVÉÖ´ÉäÇn ´ÉÉVɺÉxÉäªÉÒ ºÉÆʽþiÉÉ 8/36, ªÉº¨ÉÉzÉ VÉÉiÉ& {É®úÉä +xªÉÉä +κiÉ ªÉ +ÉÊ´É´Éä¶É ¦ÉÖ´ÉxÉÉÊxÉ Ê´É·ÉÉ* |ÉVÉÉ{ÉÊiÉ& |ÉVɪÉÉ ºÉÆ®ú®úÉhɺjÉÒÊhÉ VªÉÉäÊiÉM´ÉÆ漃 ºÉSÉiÉä ºÉ ¹ÉÉäb÷¶ÉÒ*”. It talks of three VªÉÉäÊiÉ - aspects of ¹ÉÉäb÷¶ÉÒ - but spells out only two aspects: ºÉÞ¹]õ¥ÉÀ signified by ªÉº¨ÉÉzÉ VÉÉiÉ& {É®úÉä +xªÉÉä +κiÉ and |Éʴɹ]õ¥ÉÀ signified by ªÉ +ÉÊ´É´Éä¶É ¦ÉÖ´ÉxÉÉÊxÉ Ê´É·ÉÉ. Reference: iÉèÊkÉ®úÒªÉ={ÉÊxɹÉn 2/6: iÉiºÉÞ¹]Âõ´ÉÉ iÉnäù´ÉÉxÉÖ|ÉÉʴɶÉiÉÂ* iÉnùxÉÖ|ÉʴɶªÉ ºÉSSÉ iªÉSSÉɦɴÉiÉ ÊxɯûHÆò SÉÉÊxɯûHÆò SÉ ÊxɱɪÉxÉÆ SÉÉ ÊxɱɪÉxÉÆ SÉ. Also ¤ÉÞ½þnùÉ®úhªÉEò ={ÉÊxɹÉiÉ 2/3/1-2. It leaves out |ÉÊ´ÉÊ´ÉHò¥ÉÀ (Ê´ÉÊ´ÉHò - +ºÉÆ{ÉÞHò, |ÉÊ´ÉÊ´ÉHò-Ê´ÉÊ´ÉHò¨ÉÖJÉÒ), as, like iÉÚ®úÒªÉ {É®ú¨¥ÉÀ, IT is ¶ÉɺjÉÉxÉÊvÉEÞòiÉ - no text can describe IT except “xÉäÊiÉ xÉäÊiÉ, ªÉiÉÉä ´ÉÉSÉÉä ÊxÉ´ÉkÉÇxiÉä +|ÉÉ{ªÉ¨ÉxɺÉÉ ºÉ½þ, xÉ iɺªÉ |ÉÊiɨÉÉ +κiÉ, xÉ iɺªÉ EòɪÉÈ Eò®úhÉÆ SÉ Ê´ÉtiÉä xÉ iÉiºÉ¨É¶SÉɦªÉÊvÉEò¶SÉ où¶ªÉiÉä, xÉ iÉjÉ SÉIÉÖMÉÇSUôÊiÉ xÉ ´ÉÉMMÉSUôÊiÉ xÉ ¨ÉxÉÉä xÉ Ê´ÉnÂù¨ÉÉä xÉ Ê´ÉVÉÉxÉÒ¨ÉÉä,” etc. For IT, ¨ÉÉhbÖ÷CªÉ ={ÉÊxɹÉÂù  says “xÉÉxiÉ& |ÉYÉÆ xÉ ¤Éʽþ& |ÉYÉÆ xÉÉä¦ÉªÉiÉ&|ÉYÉÆ xÉ |ÉYÉÉxÉvÉxÉÆ xÉ |ÉYÉÆ xÉÉ|ÉYɨÉÂ* +où¹]õ¨É´ªÉ´É½þɪÉǨÉOÉÉÁ¨É±ÉIÉhɨÉÊSÉxiªÉƨɴªÉ{Énäù¶ªÉ¨ÉäEòÉi¨É|ÉiªÉªÉºÉÉ®Æú |É{É\SÉÉä{ɶɨÉÆ ¶ÉÉxiÉÆ Ê¶É´É¨ÉuèùiɨÉ”. The |ÉÊ´ÉÊ´ÉHò¥ÉÀ, exists in a relationship of inherence (ºÉSÉiÉä - ºÉSÉ ºÉ¨É´ÉɪÉä) with the ºÉÞ¹]õ¥ÉÀ and |Éʴɹ]õ¥ÉÀ just like a seed contains the two pods at germination (ªÉlÉÉ ¤ÉÒVÉnù±ÉuùªÉÉxiɤÉÞÇIÉÉä%κiÉ B´ÉÆ VÉMÉkÉÉnùÉi¨ÉÉ{ÉzÉ +xiÉ& κlÉÊiÉ&*). Hence, ¥ÉÀºÉÚjɨÉ 3/2/11 says:  xÉ ºlÉÉxÉiÉÉä%Ê{É {É®úºªÉÉä¦ÉªÉʱÉRÂóMÉƺɴÉÇjÉ Ê½þ*. This way the other ºÉÚjÉÉ& - xÉ ¦ÉänùÉÊnùÊiÉ SÉäzÉ |ÉiªÉäEò¨ÉiÉuùSÉxÉÉiÉÂ, |ÉEòɶɴÉSSÉÉ´ÉèªÉlªÉÉÇiÉÂ, +ɽþ SÉ iÉx¨ÉÉjɨÉÂ, nù¶ÉǪÉÊiÉ SÉÉlÉÉä +Ê{É º¨ÉªÉÇiÉä etc. can be harmonized.

How do we know {É®ú¨¥ÉÀ exists? We can know about something that exists and evolves in time only when it is revealed to us for observation. How does {É®ú¨¥ÉÀ reveal ITself? All revelations involve instantaneous transfer of energy (¶ÉÊHò), whose existence is realized only during change of state of the observed. Nothing happens ex-nihilo – out of nothing. Thus, the changed state must have existed in its potential form before it is revealed to us. Such potential state was unknown – hidden from us by something (+É´É®úEò iɨÉ) and after this unknown factor is eliminated through perception or measurement using energy (®úVÉ), its true state (ºÉk´É) is revealed to us. Since result of measurement at any instant is always fixed, it is revealing radiation (+É´É®úEäòhÉ iɨɺÉÉʦɦÉÚiɨÉÉ´ÉÞiÉYÉÉxɺÉk´ÉÆ C´ÉÊSÉnäù´É ®úVɺªÉ |É´ÉÌkÉiɨÉÖnÂùPÉÉÊ]õiÉÆ OɽþhɺɨÉlÉÈ ¦É´ÉÊiÉ* ´ªÉɺɦÉɹªÉ on ªÉÉäMɺÉÚjɨÉ 4/31*) (explained in detail later).

In ¤ÉÞ½þnùÉ®úhªÉEòÉä{ÉÊxɹÉiÉ 4/3, there is a discussion on “ËEòVªÉÉäÊiÉ®úªÉÆ {ÉÖ¯û¹É”. It ends with “{ÉÖ¯û¹É& º´ÉªÉÆVªÉÉäÊiɦÉÇ´ÉÊiÉ”. Thus, it has been said that: “ʶɴÉ& |ÉEòɶɰü{ÉÉä ʽþ iɺªÉ ʴɸÉÉÎxiÉ®úÉi¨ÉÊxÉ* +½Æþ¦ÉÉ´É& ºÉ¨ÉÉJªÉÉiÉ& ºÉ ªÉº¨ÉÉnùxÉ{ÉäIÉEò&* º´ÉiÉxjÉi´ÉäxÉ EòÊlÉiÉÉä ¦É´ÉänùÒ·É®úiÉÉ Ê½þ ºÉÉ* ºÉÉ º¡Öò®úiÉÉ ÊGòªÉÉJªÉÉiÉÉ +½þRÂóEòÉ®úÉi¨ÉxÉÉ ÎºlÉiÉÉ”. This has been interpreted as “ʶɴÉÉä ʽþ +Ê´ÉÎSUôzÉ ¶ÉÖrùºÉΨ´Éi|ÉEòɶɨÉÉjÉ°ü{É&*”. Further, “|ÉEòɶɺªÉÉi¨ÉʴɸÉÉÎxiÉ®ú½Æþ¦ÉÉ´ÉÉä ʽþ EòÒÌkÉiÉ&* =HòÉ SÉ ºÉè´É ʴɸÉÉÎxiÉ& ºÉ´ÉÉÇ{ÉäIÉÉÊxÉ®úÉävÉiÉ&* º´ÉÉiÉxjªÉ¨ÉlÉ EòkÉÞÇi´ÉÆ ¨ÉÖJªÉ¨ÉÒ·É®úiÉÉÊ{É SÉ” (VÉb÷|ɨÉÉiÉÞʺÉÊrù). IT is the source of all revelations (the content of “I know…” includes “I know that I know...”). “I” does not depend on anything else to reveal ITself. This Absolute Independence is IT’s Lordship. ·ÉäiÉÉ·ÉäiÉ®ú ={ÉÊxɹÉn 1/3 says: näù´ÉÉi¨É¶ÉËHò º´ÉMÉÖhÉèÌxÉMÉÚføɨÉÂ*. IT’s revelation has been described as an action, because it is an observation. But it is not like ordinary actions, which are sequential and time dependent. Thus, the ={ÉÊxɹÉn declares: ªÉ& EòÉ®úhÉÉÊxÉ ÊxÉÊJɱÉÉÊxÉ iÉÉÊxÉ EòɱÉÉi¨ÉªÉÖHòÉxªÉÊvÉÊiɹ`õiªÉäEò*. The word BEò here and the statement BEò¨Éä´ÉÉÊuùiÉҪɨÉÂ, may create doubt that if IT is one, how and why does IT become three? The answer is inherence (ºÉSÉiÉää). They belong to the same entity as a class (VÉÉÊiÉ{É®úi´É). Thus the ={ÉÊxɹÉn says: BEòÉä ´ªÉÉ{ÉÒ etc.

Revelations are of two types: 1) of external dimensional objects (´Éè¹ÉʪÉEò |ÉEòɶÉ) and 2) internal perceptual revelation (as “I know” - º´É|ÉEòÉ¶É - explained below). External objects are revealed through measuring instruments, sense organs, mind, etc, with limited capacity - hence limited in dimension ({ÉÊ®úÎSUôzÉ) - spread. When cognized through our intellect; depending upon whether we had similar cognition before or not, it becomes known/indeterminate (YÉÉiÉùÉYÉÉiÉ Ê´É¹ÉªÉ). For example, if we see a snake and become afraid, adrenalin runs in our blood in reaction. But in the cognition of “fear” by “I”, snake is not the direct cause, as it is only a form cognized through our faculty of vision. One who does not have knowledge of snake will not react similarly when seeing it. The “fear” is due to a specific cognition in our brain, which is far away and not connected with the physical snake. Cognition has no dimension like physical objects. It (fear in this example) is also not related to one or more specific external causes (+ɱɨ¤ÉxÉ). Same logic applies to other emotions like happiness and sorrow. The intensity of emotion (reaction) may grow or lessen due to repetition, but it is not dimension. We may know about the object of our pleaure or pain. But like the snake example, they are not the direct cause for happiness or sorrow. It is something internal.

The cognition as “I know…”, also cannot be categorized like other perceptions, because it is universally cognized in all perceptions (xÉ SÉ iÉiÉ ºÉɱɨ¤ÉxÉÆ iɺªÉÉʴɹɪÉÒ¦ÉÚiÉi´ÉÉiÉÂ*). The sense organs receive impulses from their specific sources. Mind carries all such implulses to the brain, where it is mixed. Intellect reveals the net picture after such mixing. But it can only be cognized by the Self – “I”. Since cognition is the result of measurement, which is comparison between similars, and since the basic concepts cognized by all persons at all times are similar, it must be universal. Hence cognitive revelation is independent of other factors (+xªÉÊxÉ®ú{ÉäIÉ |ÉEòÉ¶É thus ºÉnùÉYÉÉiÉ Ê´É¹ÉªÉ).

¥ÉÀºÉÚjɨÉ 1/1/6-9 confirms this view. Since all three are different aspects of ¥ÉÀ, none is inferior to the other (MÉÉèhɶSÉäzÉÉi¨É¶É´nùÉiÉÂ). ¶ÉiÉ{ÉlÉ¥ÉÉÀhɨÉÂ10/1/3/2 says +rÇù ½þ ´Éè |ÉVÉÉ{ÉiÉä®úÉi¨ÉxÉÉä ¨ÉiªÉǨÉɺÉÒnùrÇù¨É¨ÉÞiɨÉÂ. Accordingly, when |Éʴɹ]õ¥ÉÀ is considered from the perspective of the Universe, IT is called <Ç·É®ú (Ê´É·ÉÉ{ÉäIɪÉÉ ºÉ´ÉÇ´ªÉÉ{ÉEò ʴɷɶɮúÒ®úÉ´ÉÎSUôzÉ ºÉ´ÉǦÉÚiÉÉxiÉ®úÉi¨ÉÉ). When IT is considered from the perspective of lesser objects, IT is called VÉÒ´É (Ê´É·ÉÉ{ÉäIɪÉÉ {ÉÊ®úÎSUôzÉ ¶É®úÒ®úÉ{ÉäIɪÉÉ ºÉ´ÉÇ´ªÉÉ{ÉEò ¶É®úÒ®úÊ´É·ÉÉ´ÉÎSUôzÉ ¦ÉÚiÉÉi¨ÉÉ). The ºÉÞ¹]õ¥ÉÀ becomes the creation (VÉMÉiºÉ´ÉǨÉÂ). Yet, these are not different from the {É®ú¨¥ÉÀ (½äþªÉi´ÉÉ´ÉSÉxÉÉSSÉ) and ultimately become one with IT (iÉÊzɹ`öºªÉ ¨ÉÉäIÉÉä{Énäù¶ÉÉiÉÂ) during |É±ÉªÉ (º´ÉÉ{ªÉªÉÉiÉÂ). Thus, BEÆò ´ÉÉ 6/4/29.

·ÉäiÉÉ·ÉäiÉ®ú ={ÉÊxɹÉnù 6/8 says: {É®úɺªÉ ¶ÉÊHòÌ´ÉÊ´ÉvÉè´É ¸ÉÚªÉiÉä º´ÉɦÉÉÊ´ÉEòÒ YÉÉxɤɱÉÊGòªÉÉ SÉ*. These reveal itself as the conserved (|ÉÊ´ÉÊ´ÉHò¥ÉÀ/{É®úÉi{É® or +Ê´ÉEÖò´ÉÉÇhÉ +´ªÉªÉú - EÖò´ÉÇnÂù-Eò¨ÉÇEòkÉÉÇ-¡ò±ÉÉäx¨ÉÖJÉ, MÉÖhÉÉiÉÒiÉ), kinetic (|Éʴɹ]õ¥ÉÀ/{É®úÉ or EÖò´ÉÉÇhÉ +IÉ®, ºÉMÉÖhÉ¥ÉÀ) and potential (ºÉÞ¹]õ¥ÉÀ/+{É®úÉ or Ê´ÉEÖò´ÉÉÇhÉ IÉ®, ÊxÉMÉÖÇhÉ¥ÉÀú) aspects of {É®ú¨¥ÉÀ,  because ¦ÉÉäHòÉ YÉÉxɨÉ (ºÉpÚù{ÉähÉɴɦÉɺÉxɨÉÂ) is the complement of ¦ÉÉäMªÉ ÊGòªÉÉ (EòÉ®úEòÉ{ÉäIÉÉ - xÉ YÉÉxÉɱÉΨ´ÉxÉÒ ºÉnùÉ) through ¦ÉÉäMÉ - ºÉÖJÉnÖù&JÉ ºÉÉIÉÉiEòÉ® (+xÉÖEÚò±É´ÉänùxÉÒªÉ ºÉÖJÉ - |ÉÊiÉEÚò±É´ÉänùxÉÒªÉ nÖù&JÉ). ¦ÉÉäMÉ is also - ºÉ¨É ºÉ½þ ºÉƪÉÉäMÉ, where ºÉƪÉÉäMÉ means +|ÉÉ{iɪÉÉäºiÉÖ ªÉÉ |ÉÉÎ{iÉ and |ÉÉÎ{iÉ means +ÉvÉÉ®úÉvÉɪÉÇ ¦ÉÚiÉÉxÉɨÉÂ. This is proved by ¥ÉÀºÉÚjɨÉ 1/1/10-19. The three preceding ºÉÚjÉÉ& show how the ¥ÉÀ evolves and again dissolves everything on to ITself as explained above and elsewhere (ªÉlÉÉähÉÇxÉÉʦÉ& ºÉÞVÉiÉä MÉÞ¼hÉiÉä SÉ ...¨ÉÖhb÷Eò 1/1/7). The process repeats (MÉÊiɺÉɨÉÉxªÉÉiÉÂ* ¸ÉÖiÉi´ÉÉSSÉ*).

The next two ºÉÚjÉÉè confirm this view. +ÉxÉxnù¶ÉÊHò implies total freedom (+ÉxÉxnù¶ÉÊHò º´ÉÉiÉxjªÉÆ ºÉÉ´ÉÇÊjÉEò¨ÉÖnùɾþiɨÉÂ). It is a character of ¥ÉÀ (+ÉxÉxnùÉä ¥ÉÀäÊiÉ ´ªÉVÉÉxÉÉiÉ - iÉè.=. 3/6). Such a ¥ÉÀ does not gets displaced or shifts away (+ÉxÉxnÆù ¥ÉÀhÉÉä Ê´ÉuùÉxÉ xÉ Ê¤É¦ÉäÊiÉ EÖòiɶSÉxÉ* iÉè.=. 2/9). Thus the |ÉÊ´ÉÊ´ÉHò¥ÉÀ is called +´ªÉªÉ and +¦ÉªÉ. Hence the words ¨ÉªÉ and +¦ªÉɺÉÉiÉ are not applicable to +ÉxÉxnù. That means it refers to |Éʴɹ]õ¥ÉÀ or +IÉ®ú, because though ®úºÉ representing ºÉÞ¹]õ¥ÉÀ or IÉ® (®úºÉÉä ´Éè ºÉ& -iÉèÊkÉ®úÒªÉ={ÉÊxɹÉn 2/7) is one, ¤É±É (xÉɪɨÉÉi¨ÉÉ ¤É±É½þÒxÉäxÉ ±É¦ªÉÉä - ¨ÉÖhb÷Eòä -3/2/4, ¤É±ÉÆ ´ÉÉ´É Ê´ÉYÉÉxÉÉnÂù¦ÉÚªÉ& - UôÉxnùÉäMªÉä 7/8/1) representing õ|Éʴɹ]¥ÉÀ or +IÉ®  being kinetic (EÖò´ÉÉÇhÉ), can be transformed (¨ÉªÉ] Â) to many (repetitive - +¦ªÉɺÉ) during creation, while it becomes one during |ɱɪÉ. Since the three exist in a relation of inherence (ºÉSÉiÉä) with each other, reference to the middle |Éʴɹ]õ¥ÉÀ includes the other two also. This is a standard practice in the Vedas. For example, ¥ÉÀÉ is related to IÉ®¥ÉÀ, ʴɹhÉÖ& is related to +´ªÉªÉ¥ÉÀ and is related to +IÉ®¥ÉÀ. As is shown later, is also related to ´ÉÉEÂò. Hence ¶ÉiÉ{ÉlÉ¥ÉÉÀhɨÉ says ´ÉÉÊMÉiªÉäEò¨ÉIÉ®ú¨ÉÂ* +IÉ®úʨÉÊiÉ jªÉIÉ®ú¨ÉÂ, meaning thereby that among those related in a relation of inherence, reference to one includes reference to all. Any specific reference to them has to be interpreted according to the context.

The YÉÉxÉ-¤É±É-ÊGòªÉÉ are also known as wÉÖ´É-vÉjÉÇ-vɯûhÉ in the Vedas (ªÉVÉÖ& 13/34) because they represent the ºÉÖ{iÉ-EÖò´ÉÇnÂù-ÊxÉMÉÇSUônÂù states.  The ¤É±ÉÉi¨ÉEò MÉÊiÉvɨÉÉÇ |ÉÉhÉ in its potential state (+´ªÉHò°ü{ÉÉ ºÉÖ{iÉɴɺlÉÉ) is called force - ¤É±É, in its released state (EÖò´ÉÇpÚù{ÉɴɺlÉÉ VÉÉOÉnùɴɺlÉÉ) is called energy - |ÉÉhÉ, and in its kinetic state (ÊxÉMÉÇSUônÂù +´ÉºlÉÉ), is called action - ÊGòªÉÉ. Of these, EòÉ®úEò ¤É±É relates to |Éʴɹ]õ¥ÉÀ and ÊGòªÉÉ relates to ºÉÞ¹]õ¥ÉÀ. Since ¨ÉɪÉÉ is a force - ¤É±É, it is an effect of |Éʴɹ]õ¥ÉÀ. It will be shown that it is the mother of all forces.


{É®ú¶ÉÖ®úɨÉEò±{ɺÉÚjÉ talks about ¹É]ÂõËjɶÉiÉ iÉk´ÉÉÊxÉ Ê´É¶´É¨ÉÂ*. Here iÉk´É has been defined as: “+É|ɱɪÉÆ ªÉÊkɹ`öÊiÉ ºÉ´Éæ¹ÉÉÆ ¦ÉÉäMÉnùÉ滃 ¦ÉÚiÉÉxÉɨÉÂ* iÉkÉk´ÉʨÉÊiÉ |ÉÉäHÆò xÉ ¶É®úÒ®úPÉ]õÉÊnù iÉk´É¨ÉiÉ&*. In addition to the 24 iÉk´ÉÉÊxÉ of ºÉÉÆJªÉ, it includes 7 Ê´ÉtÉiÉk´É and 5 ʶɴÉiÉk´É of {ÉÖ¯û¹É included in the description º´ÉÉ{ªÉªÉÉiÉ (¥ÉÀºÉÚjɨÉ 1/1/9, |ɶxÉÉä{ÉÊxɹÉnÂù4/2). ¨ÉÞMÉäxpùºÉÆʽþiÉÉ and ®úixÉjɪÉ{ÉÊ®úIÉÉ etc, give detailed description of these ¹É]ÂõËjɶÉiÉ iÉk´ÉÉÊxÉ*. In this list, ¨ÉɪÉÉ and +Ê´ÉtÉ are at serial numbers 6 and 7 respectively. According to ®úixÉjɪÉ{ÉÊ®úIÉÉ, “” and “{ÉÚ´ÉÉæHò Ê´ÉtÉÊiÉ®úÉävÉÉxɶÉÊHò¨ÉiÉÒ iÉÊuù®úÉäÊvÉxÉÒ +Ê´ÉtÉ{Énù´ÉÉSªÉÉ ºÉ{iɨÉÆ iÉk´É¨ÉÂ*”. ´ÉÞÊkÉ& means BEòºªÉÉxÉäEòjÉɸɪÉÉʸÉiɺɨ´ÉxvɱÉIÉhÉÉ |ÉÉÎ{iÉ& (ºÉ¨´ÉxvÉ&) where +ɸɪÉ& means ªÉºªÉ ªÉiÉÉäªÉjÉÉi¨É±ÉɦÉÉxÉÖ{É{ÉÊkÉ&*.

According to {É®ú¨ÉÉxÉxnùiÉxjɨÉÂ:+JÉhb÷®úºÉ¨ÉäiÉÉ´ÉnäùiÉnÂù ¦ÉänùxÉxÉè{ÉÖhÉÉ* º´ÉiÉxjÉ°ü{ÉÉ i´ÉÆ näù´ÉÒ ¨ÉɪÉÉ ¦Éè®ú´É¤É±±É¦ÉÉ*
¦ÉänùxÉäxÉ º´É°ü{ɺªÉ MÉÉä{ÉxÉÉkÉk´É°üÊ{ÉhÉÒ* º´É°ü{ɦÉänùxÉÆ Ê½þi´ÉÉ SÉèEòÉ´ÉMɨÉxÉÉätiÉÉ*
According to ʶɴɮú½þºªÉ: ¨ÉɪÉÉ Ê´É¦Éänù¤ÉÖÊrùÌxÉVÉÉƶɦÉÚiÉä¹ÉÖ ÊxÉÊJɱɦÉÚiÉä¹ÉÖ* ÊxÉiªÉÆ iɺªÉ ÊxÉ®úRÂóEÖò¶ÉʴɦɴÉÆ ´Éä±Éä´É ¤ÉÉÊ®úËvÉ ¯ûxvÉä*
ºÉ iɪÉÉ {ÉÊ®úʨÉiɨÉÚÌkÉ& ºÉRÂóEÖòÊSÉiɺɨɺiɶÉÊHò®äú¹É {ÉÖ¨ÉÉxÉÂ* ®úÊ´ÉÊ®ú´É ºÉxvªÉÉ®úHò& ºÉƾþiÉ®úζ¨É& º´É¦ÉɺÉxÉä%{ªÉ{É]Öõ&*
The fifth ºÉÚjÉ of ¥ÉÀºÉÚjÉ introduces ¨ÉɪÉÉ through the word <ÇIÉiÉä&. In all branches of the Vedas, the word <ÇIÉiÉ refers to the creation event. For example, MÉÉä{ÉlÉ¥ÉÉÀhɨÉ says: “¥ÉÀ ½þ ´ÉÉ ”. The word <ÇIÉiÉ has been interpreted from the root in the sense <Ç +IhÉÉäiÉÒÊiÉ - +IÉ ´ªÉÉ{iÉÉè ºÉƽþiÉÉè SÉ*. According to MÉhÉÉlÉÇ-Eò±{ÉpÖù¨É&, it also means <Ç <ªÉiÉä. Because of <ªÉiÉÉ (confined by the complimentary characteristics of ´ªÉÉÊ{iÉ and ºÉƽÊiÉ), it describes limited dimension ({ÉÊ®úÎSUôzÉ) – hence one only - BEò¨Éä´É - as there is nothing similar to IT. Without limited dimension, IT cannot be one, as dimensional clarity is a precondition for BEòi´É. Otherwise; it will be infinite - +xÉxiÉ ({É®ú¨ÉÉlÉæ iÉÖ xÉèEòi´ÉÆ {ÉÞlÉCi´ÉÉÎnÂù¦ÉzɱÉIÉhɨÉÂ* {ÉÞlÉCi´ÉäEòi´É°ü{ÉähÉ iÉk´É¨Éä´É |ÉEòɶÉiÉä* ªÉiÉ {ÉÞlÉCi´É¨ÉºÉÎxnùMvÉÆ iÉnäùEòi´ÉÉzÉʦÉtiÉä * ªÉnäùEòi´É¨ÉºÉÎxnùMvÉÆ iÉi{ÉÞlÉCi´ÉÉzÉ Ê¦ÉtiÉä*). Consider the state before creation.

The xÉɺÉnùҪɺÉÚHò says “xÉɺÉnùɺÉÒzÉÉä ºÉnùɺÉÒiÉ iÉnùÉxÉÓ xÉɺÉÒpùVÉÉä xÉÉä ´ªÉÉä¨ÉÉ {É®úÉäVÉiÉÂ*”. Here ®úVÉ and ´ªÉÉä¨É indicate minimum perceptible (+hÉÖ) and infinite ({É®ú¨É¨É½þiÉÂ) dimension respectively – the two extreme limits of measurement. In their absence, confined ({ÉÊ®úÎSUôzÉ) dimension (which is the perception of differentiation between the internal structural space and external relational space), cannot exist. Thus, <ÇIÉ must refer to the beginning of creation, before which, xÉɺÉnùҪɺÉÚHò says, it was +´ÉÉiÉ – devoid of ´ÉÉiÉ – motion. Intermediate space (+¨ÉÞiÉÉEòɶÉ) is called %ªÉÆ ¨ÉvªÉä|ÉÉhÉ& B¹É B´Éäxpù& - ¶ÉiÉ{ÉlÉ 6/1/1/2), confined space (¨ÉkªÉÉÇEòɶÉ), is called ´ÉÉEò or (iÉèÊkÉ®úÒªÉ ¥ÉÉÀhɨÉ 2/8/8/4). The word ´ÉÉEÂò has been interpreted by ¶ÉÉRÂóJªÉɪÉxÉ ¥ÉÉÀhɨÉ to mean all perceivable objects, as we express these even in our thought only through speech form. Hence Kanaada (EòhÉÉnù) says – “ºÉÆYÉÉEò¨ÉÇi´Éº¨ÉÊuùʶɹ]õÉxÉÉÆ Ê±ÉRÂóMɨÉ and |ÉiªÉIÉ|É´ÉÞkÉi´ÉÉiÉ ºÉÆYÉÉEò¨ÉÇhÉ&*”. The all pervading energy (+¨ÉÞiÉ|ÉÉhÉ) is called |ÉÉhÉ, and the confined energy (¨ÉkªÉÇ|ÉÉhÉ) is called ´ÉÉiÉ or ´ÉɪÉÖ&. Since energy - ´ÉɪÉÖ& - can move objects from its position (´ÉÉ MÉÊiÉ MÉxvÉxɪÉÉä&- MÉxvÉ +nÇùxÉä), ¤ÉÞ½þqäù´ÉiÉÉ says:“BäxpùºiÉÖ ¨ÉxjÉÉä ´ÉɪɴÉè̱ÉRÂóMÉè®èúxpù¶SÉ ±ÉIÉiÉä* xÉɨÉvÉäªÉè¶SÉ ´ÉXɺªÉ ¤É±ÉEÞòiªÉÉ ¤É±ÉäxÉ SÉ*”.

The xÉ ´ªÉÉä¨É and +´ÉÉiÉ in xÉɺÉnùҪɺÉÚHò doesn’t imply absence of free space - (xÉäxpùÉoùiÉä {É´ÉiÉä vÉÉ¨É ÊEò\SÉxÉ - @ñEÂò 9/69/6) - or free energy - |ÉÉhÉ, but only absence of confined space - ´ÉÉEò and confined energy - ´ÉɪÉÖ (VÉè:={É:¥ÉÉ 1/2/91). Without confinement, there cannot be any objects (hence interval between them, which is called space through alternative symbolism - +ÉEòÉɨÉä´É Eäò¹ÉÉÎ\SÉiÉ näùɦÉänù |ÉEò±{ÉxÉÉiÉÂ*). Yet, it does not rule out free space, as it is the base or ground for everything (+ÉvÉÉ®úÉÎCiÉ |ÉlɨÉÉ ºÉ´ÉǺÉƪÉÉäÊMÉxÉÉÆ ¨ÉiÉÉ*). Without objects, there cannot be time, which is perceived through action in them (EòɱÉÉiÉ ÊGòªÉÉ Ê´É¦ÉVªÉxiÉä +ÉEòɶÉÉiÉ ºÉ´ÉǨÉÚkÉǪÉ&*). Thus, energy - |ÉÉhÉ&, must have been in its potential form. Free energy - |ÉÉhÉ& in its potential form is known as force - ¤É±É. Hence <ÇIÉiÉ must refer to the first descriptive force (ÊnùMnäù¶ÉEòÉ±É {ÉÊ®úÊUôzÉ ¦ÉÉÊiÉʺÉrù ¤É±É), which cuts off or confines a portion from the non-descriptive expanse (ÊnùMnäù¶ÉEòÉ±É +{ÉÊ®úÊUôzÉ +xÉxiÉ ºÉkÉÉʺÉrù ®úºÉ - ®úºÉÉä ´Éè ºÉ& - iÉèÊkÉ®úÒªÉ={ÉÊxɹÉn 2-7) for observation by ¥ÉÀ, like a person looking at his hand or leg. It existed all along, but only now the person puts more attention to that body part – hence <ÇIÉiÉ. Such observation of confined dimensionality is a form of measurement. Because of this measuring process, this ¤É±É is known as ¨ÉɪÉÉ (¨ÉÉRÂó ¨ÉÉxÉä - ʨÉxÉÉÊiÉ ªÉÉ ºÉÉ - ¨ÉÒªÉiÉä +xɪÉÉ ºÉÉ - ¨ÉɪÉÉ- ºÉÒʨÉiÉ ´ÉºiÉÖiÉk´É). It is the first of the 15 ¤É±É´ªÉÖ½þ that are part of +Ê´ÉtÉ. The 16th is Ê´ÉtÉ - +Ê´ÉtªÉÉ (Eò¨ÉÇÊhÉ) ¨ÉÞiªÉÖÆ iÉÒk´ÉÉÇ Ê´ÉtªÉÉ (YÉÉxÉäxÉ) +¨ÉÞiɨɶxÉÖiÉä (<ǶÉÉä{ÉÊxɹÉiÉÂ)ä. The total is ¹ÉÉäb÷¶ÉÒ +IÉ®.

Once the force - ¤É±É - known as ¨ÉɪÉÉ¤É±É operates, the fundamental force (¶ÉÊHò - the second of the ¹É]ÂõËjɶÉiÉ iÉk´ÉÉÊxÉ) is confined over an area. This creates stress fields that lead to the formation of the Universe. A part of {É®ú¨¥ÉÀ confined by Maya is |ÉÊ´ÉÊ´ÉHò¥ÉÀ. It is the basic substratum or ground or field that remains non-interacting background structure (¥ÉÀ ´Éè ºÉ´ÉǺªÉ |ÉÊiɹ`öÉ). The remaining part is divided into various components because of the bow-shock effect generated by Maya before it comes to a halt at a boundary called xÉèʨɹÉÉ®úhªÉ (xÉèÊ¨É¹É because, the xÉä欃 of vɨÉÇSÉGò becomes exhaust - xÉÒʹÉhÉÇ there, and +®úhªÉ because, it is one only - a collection is called OÉÉ¨É and its opposite is +®úhªÉ). The word +®úhªÉ also implies existence of other not-inter-connected Universes (not Multiverses).

When a boat moves on the surface of a lake at a greater velocity than the velocity of the flowing water, it generates friction, which slows down the boat. This is called the bow-shock effect. If no other force (like continuous running of the engine) is applied, then the boat will have gradually reduced relative velocity with reference to the flow of water till it becomes zero (though the boat may still be moving with water). In front of the boat, water separates out in semi-elliptic paths to merge again in the back. Water has the unique property of expanding both when cooled and heated. Though it consists of oxygen and hydrogen, it behaves differently from both. The water (®úºÉ in creation event) and the force (¤É±É) combine in different proportions, which leads to increasing magnitude of force (¤É±É) combining with reduced volumes (increasing density) of water (®úºÉ) over same area generating other emergent forces. Here force (¤É±É) is |Éʴɹ]õ¥ÉÀ and the super-fluid water (®úºÉ) ºÉÞ¹]õ¥ÉÀ. These can also be called the primordial stress and impedance.

The density division makes a fourfold (SÉiÉÖ¹]õªÉÆ ´ÉÉ ) medium (+¨¦ÉÉä¨É®úÒSÉÒ¨ÉÇ®ú¨ÉÉ{ÉÉä - BäiÉ®äúªÉÉä{ÉÊxɹÉnù 1/1). Thus, the Vedas say: {ÉÉnùÉä%ºªÉ Ê´É·ÉɦÉÚiÉÉÊxÉ ÊjÉ{ÉÉnùºªÉɨÉÞiÉÆ ÊnùÊ´É and ÊjÉ{ÉÉnÚùnÂùv´ÉÇ =nèùi{ÉÖ¯û¹É& {ÉÉnùÉä%ºªÉä½þÉ%%¦É´Éi{ÉÖxÉ&, etc. Further xÉɺÉnùҪɺÉÚHò says: +¨¦É& ÊEò¨ÉɺÉÒnÂùMɽþxÉÆ MɦÉÒ®ú¨ÉÂ*. Though it is in the form of a question, it is well known that the question, interpreted differently, is also the answer in the Vedas. For example, the answer to the question “Eòº¨Éè näù´ÉÉªÉ ½þʴɹÉÉ Ê´ÉvÉä¨É is “Eò-º¨Éè”, where means |ÉVÉÉ{ÉÊiÉ&. The smooth and persistent super-fluid medium is the background structure (dark energy would be a misnomer, as energy is always perceived indirectly only through its interactions, but background structures do not interact). The first two parts - (+¨¦ÉÉä¨É®úÒSÉÒ&) consisting of 70%, (the four {ÉÉnÉ& are in the ratio of 4+3+2+1=10 - +iªÉÊiɹ`öqù¶ÉÉRÂóMÉֱɨÉÂ) are non-interacting. The rest 30% consist of both luminous (º´ÉVªÉÉäÊiÉ and {É®úVªÉÉäÊiÉ) and the so called dark (°ü{ÉVªÉÉäÊiÉ and +VªÉÉäÊiÉ) matter. Of this, luminous matter is only one {ÉÉn, i.e., 10%. If we consider {É®ú¨¥ÉÀ (iÉnùÉ pù¹]Öõ& º´É°ü{Éä%´ÉºlÉÉxɨÉÂ) then this figure will be halved.

The fundamental energy (¨ÉÖJªÉ|ÉÉhÉ) acts independent of all factors (+xÉ{ÉäIÉEò¨ÉÇEòÉ®úÒ). The universal gravitation as explained in Vedas is its example (explained below). Whenever ¨ÉÖJªÉ|ÉÉhÉ (gravity) faces obstacles (differential density), it creates a confined form ({ÉÖ®ú) by creating stress fields, which increases the temperature (+ÎMxÉ&). This creates a low pressure area and cooling effect (ºÉÉä¨É) around it creating division in the density gradient (+lÉ ªÉÉä MɦÉÉæ%xiÉ®úɺÉÒiÉ ºÉÉä%ÎMxÉ®úºÉÞVªÉiÉ- ¶ÉiÉ{ÉlÉ6/1/1/10-11). Where both +ÎMxÉ& and ºÉÉä¨É balance each other, the inner space becomes embedded like sand dunes (ªÉlÉÉÎMxÉMɦÉÉÇ {ÉÞÊlÉ´ÉÒ - ¶ÉiÉ{ÉlÉ 14/7/5/20). Hence ¶ÉiÉ{ÉlÉ¥ÉÉÀhɨÉ 10/2/7/3 says +ÎMxÉ®äú´É {ÉÖ®ú&*. The forces that regulate planetary and galactic orbits (+ɴɽþÉÊnù ºÉ{iÉ´ÉɪɴÉ&) are also examples. Confined ´ÉɪÉÖ cannot function independently, but must depend on the constraints put by the confinement (+{ÉäIÉÉEò¨ÉÇEòÉ®úÒ). Since derivatives of ¨ÉɪÉÉ generate and regulate all universal forces, ¨ÉɪÉÉ is said to regulate all.

Combination of and |ÉÉhÉ& leads to formation of elementary quantum particles (näù´ÉºÉÞι]õ). Combination of ´ÉÉEò and ´ÉɪÉÖ& leads to formation of material particles (¦ÉÚiɺÉÞι]õ). This has been described by ¶ÉiÉ{ÉlÉ¥ÉÉÀhɨÉ 10/2/7/1-2 as “+ªÉÆ ´ÉÉ´É ªÉVÉÖªÉÉæ%ªÉÆ {É´ÉiÉä* B¹É ʽþ ªÉzÉä´ÉänùM´ÉÆ ºÉ´ÉÈ VÉxɪÉiÉäiÉÆ ªÉxiÉÉʨÉnù¨ÉxÉÖ |ÉVÉɪÉiÉä iɺ¨ÉÉuùɪÉÖ®äú´É ªÉVÉÖ&* +ªÉ¨Éä´ÉÉEòɶÉÉä VÉÚ&* ªÉÊnùnù¨ÉxiÉÊ®úIɨÉäiÉM´ÉÆ ÁÉEòɶɨÉxÉÖVÉ´ÉiÉä iÉnäùiÉtVÉÖ´´ÉÉǪÉÖ¶SÉÉxiÉÊ®úIÉÆ SÉ ªÉSSÉ VÉÚ¶SÉ iɺ¨ÉɪÉVÉÖ®äú¹É% B´É ªÉnäù¹É ÁäÊiÉ iÉnäùiÉtVÉÖ®Âú@ñCºÉɨɪÉÉä& |ÉÊiÉι`öiɨÉÞCºÉɨÉä ´´É½þiÉ&..*”. The Universe is called VÉMÉiÉ because everything in it is ever moving (MÉSUôiÉÒÊiÉ). Thus, action (Eò¨ÉÇ) is the essence of the Universe. Actions are of two types: automated perpetual action (Gòi´ÉlÉÇ Eò¨ÉÇ), such as the evolution of elementary particles that generates a fixed inertia, and directed composite action (efforts - {ÉÖ¯û¹ÉÉlÉÇ Eò¨ÉÇ) that generates differential inertia, depending upon the nature of the action inducing such inertia.

Whenever individual actions (|ÉGò¨É) are grouped (+ʦÉGò¨É) with a view to get desired results (+{ÉäIÉɤÉÖÊrùEÞòiÉ Eò¨ÉÇ), it generates an induced inertia (Eò¨ÉÇ´ªÉÖ½þ) that changes the nature of time evolution. In automated action (={ÉäIÉɤÉÖÊrùEÞòiÉ Eò¨ÉÇ) like those of quarks, atoms and galaxies, etc, they evolve  in time deterministically. Our sense organs and measuring instruments have ability to report time evolution only in a limited way. We may observe the building up of a storm, but we will not be able to link it to the flapping of the wings of a butterfly thousands of kilometers away, whose chain reaction led to the storm. This introduces uncertainty in our readings. The inertia generated in {ÉÖ¯û¹ÉÉlÉÇ Eò¨ÉÇ with their free-will (¨ÉÉxÉÖ¹É) changes the nature of perpetual time evolution. They are bound (¤ÉrVÉÒ´É) by the induced reaction till this inertia ceases and they come over to the automated time evolution (ÊxÉ&¸ÉäªÉºÉ). All free species (¨ÉÖHòVÉÒ´É) are called perpetually evolutionary species (+É·ÉÎilÉEòVÉÒ´É). These species have two divisions: fixed evolutionary (¥ÉÀ +É·ÉÎilÉEòVÉÒ´É) or specified evolutionary (ÊxɪÉiÉEò¨ÉÇ +É·ÉÎilÉEòVÉÒ´É). The first category is inert like galaxy, Sun, Earth, Moon, etc (¦ÉÚiɺÉÞι]õ), which have fixed orbital positions (|ÉÊiɹ`öÉ). The other category is conscious like Brahmaa (¥ÉÀÉ), Vishnu, Indra, Agni, Soma, etc., who do not have a fixed position and are in perpetual motion (näù´ÉºÉÞι]õ). Thus, there is no fixed position in the quantum world. Brahma (¥ÉÀ) is conscious and is different because, being omnipresent and eternal, it does not move or transform in time.

This view is further confirmed from a reading of the rest of ¥ÉÀºÉÚjɨÉ 1/1/5: <ÇIÉiÉäxÉÉǶɴnù¨ÉÂ*. The word +¶É´nù¨É has been interpreted as absence of scriptural authority (¶É´nù|ɨÉÉhÉ) in support of attributing Nature (VÉb ÷|ÉEÞòÊiÉ) the ability of <ÇIÉhÉ, which is a conscious function. Then, either the word or + is superfluous. The general interpretation could be obtained without either of these. Also ¶É´nù¨É – sound, is not the same as ¶É´nù|ɨÉÉhÉ – transferred perception from an authoritative source without direct interaction with the object. There is a simpler explanation for the use of the word xÉɶɴnù¨ÉÂ.

@ñM´Éänù& 6/69/8 refers to jÉävÉÉ ºÉ½þ»É¨ÉÂ, which BäiÉ®äúªÉ¥ÉÉÀhɨÉ interprets as “<¨Éä ´ÉänùÉ& <¨Éä ±ÉÉäEòÉ& +lÉ ´ÉÉMÉäÊiÉ ´ÉÞªÉÉiÉ”. ´ÉÉEÂò is different from ¶É¤nù&. The describable is called ´ÉÉEÂò, which combines the object and the cognizable concept associated with it (nomenclature based on its properties) expressed in speech form (sound or language), though we do not discern these divisions. Staying put or moving out are different functions that require force – here ¨ÉɪÉÉ. Starting from the object of <ÇIÉhÉ by ¥ÉÀ that generates the derivatives of ¨ÉɪÉÉ, evolution of ´ÉÉEÂò has been divided into two categories depending on its nature of coupling with adjacent space. If it passes on momentum only without physically moving out (ºÉÉ訪ÉÉ ´ÉÉEÂò) as in a wave, it is called vibration (Eò¨{É). If it actually moves out to couple with the next position in space continuously (+ÉMxÉäªÉÒ ´ÉÉEÂò), it is called virtual pair production (ÊSÉÊiÉ).

The former is called ºÉ®úº´ÉiÉÒ ´ÉÉEÂò (the medium in which it operates is called ºÉ®úº´ÉÉxÉÂ) which generates speech form (+EòÉ®úÉÊnù ½þEòÉ®úÉxiÉ ¶É´nù&). The later is called +ɨ¦ÉÞhÉÒ ´ÉÉEÂò (@ñM´Éänù 10/125) and is responsible for material creation (the medium is called ºÉ¨ÉÖpù+hÉÇ´É - the intermediate medium is called xɦɺ´ÉÉxÉÂ). The particulate matter is compiled from this ºÉ¨ÉÖpù+hÉÇ´É by ´É®úɽþ (´ÉÞhÉÖiÉä <ÊiÉ ´É®ú&* +¼xÉÉäiÉÒÊiÉ +½þ&* ´É®ú¶SÉɺÉÉè +½þ¶SÉèÊiÉ ´É®úɽþ& by creating stress fields. There are five types of ´É®úɽþ&. The ´É®úɽþ& that compiles solids ({ÉÞl´ÉÒÊ{Éhb÷), is called B¨ÉÚ¹É ´É®úɽþ&*. Thus, ¶ÉiÉ{ÉlÉ¥ÉÉÀhɨÉ says: iÉÉÆ (|ÉÉnäù¶É¨ÉÉjÉÓ {ÉÞÊlÉ´ÉÓ) B¨ÉÚ¹É <ÊiÉ ´É®úɽþ =VVÉvÉÉxÉ* ºÉÉ亪ÉÉ& {ÉÊiÉ& |ÉVÉÉ{ÉÊiÉ&*. Along with such compilation of the material universe due to ÊSÉÊiÉ through the mechanism of ¦ÉÚÊiÉ&, ªÉYÉ&, ºÉÚjɨÉÂ, ºÉiªÉ¨ÉÂ, (explained later), it leads to ªÉIɨÉ that creates galaxies and stars (ªÉVÉÖ& 13/30 and ¶ÉiÉ{ÉlÉ 4/5/1 and 14/8/6). This has been confirmed by a National Radio Astronomy Observatory press release dated 24-08-2014, which reports latest findings indicating that rocky planets like Earth start out as microscopic bits of dust tinier than a grain of sand, which turn to filaments or streams of material that condense in-situ within the cool, slow moving zones of the nebula. Instead of the usual microscopic dust particles mixed in with molecular gas, there are ‘pebbles’ as large as a centimeter across, that are more efficient at radiating away their thermal energy in the form of millimeter radio waves. This conforms the Vedic theory. The evolution of sound due to Eò¨{É also continues in tandem because displacement of particles as the universe evolves, causes vibration. Hence ¨ÉèjÉɪÉhÉÒ ={ÉÊxɹÉiÉÂù says: uäù ´ÉÉ´É ¥ÉÀhÉÉä °ü{Éä ¶É´nù¥ÉÀ {É®Æú SÉ ªÉiÉÂ*. The Vedic theory of sound - ¶É¤nù& - is being discussed.


While the primordial state (´ÉÉEÂò ºÉ¨ÉÖpù) is smooth and persistent; according to the definition: ¶É{ɨÉ +ÉGòÉä¶ÉÆ nùnùÉÊiÉ <ÊiÉ ¶É´nù&,  sound is violent. Unless the energy pushes the medium continuously in multifarious ways so that a wave is generated and travels to hit our ears, there can be no sound.
Vedic theory of sound as given in xÉɨÉÉlÉÇEò±{ɺÉÚjÉ is:
Ê´ÉxnÖù´ÉÉiÉÉMxªÉ¨¤É®úÉhÉÉÆ iɺ¨ÉÉiÉ ºÉÉRÂóEäòÊiÉEòÉ& º¨ÉÞiÉÉ& * iÉjÉ ¶ÉEòÉ®ú Ê´ÉxnÖù ¤ÉEòÉ®ú ´ÉÉiÉ nùEòÉ®ú +ÎMxÉ& ʴɺÉMÉǶSÉÉEòɶÉ.
This gives the equation for sound in a mathematical format as: ¶É  + ¤É + + #&   D ¶É¤nù&,
where ¶É represents Ê´ÉxnÖù – the central equilibrium point or ground from where the sound originates and which is the basis of ¾þnùªÉ¨É (explained later), ¤É represents ´ÉÉiÉ - the equivalent of gravitational force, represents +ÎMxÉ – the first pereivable force of Nature. In the primordial form it can be equated with gluons of modern physics. As its third derivative (to be explained later), it is equivalent to the electric part of electromagnetic medium. The “& represents +¨¤É®ú – the space. Vedic equations are called ºÉÉRÂóEäòÊiÉEòÉ&. The left hand side of the equation is the cause representing free-will and the right hand side of the equation is the deterministic effect. Variation of the left hand side parameters due to free-will will produce different deterministic sound frequencies.

According to Kanaada (EòhÉÉnù), sound is that which is perceived through sensory receptacles of ears (¸ÉÉäjÉOɽþhÉÉä ªÉÉä%lÉÇ& ºÉ ¶É´nù&) and is generated due to coupling (ºÉƪÉÉäMÉ - +|ÉÉ{iɪÉÉäºiÉÖ ªÉÉ |ÉÉÎ{iÉ - |ÉÉÎ{iÉ means +ÉvÉÉ®úÉvÉɪÉÇ ¦ÉÚiÉÉxÉɨÉÂ), or separation (ʴɦÉÉMÉ) of objects or due to inertia generated by sound itself (ºÉƪÉÉäMÉÉÊuù¦ÉÉMÉÉSSÉ ¶É´nùÉSSÉ ¶É´nùÊxɹ{ÉÊkÉ). The point of such contact or division is the point of origin (|ɦɴÉ) of sound. Since a point has existence only and no dimensions, it has no physical presence (¶ÉÚxªÉÉEòÉ®úÉnÂù ʴɺÉMÉÉÇxiÉÉnÂù Ê´ÉxnùÉä& |ɺ{ÉxnùºÉΨ´Énù&*). EòhÉÉnù classifies sound as an action sequence (MÉÖhɺªÉ ºÉiÉÉä%{É´ÉMÉÇ& Eò¨ÉÇʦÉ& ºÉÉvɨªÉǨÉÂ), because all action sequences have limited existence. Action starts with the application of force to move something from its position to the space beyond (ÊGòªÉÉ-ÊGòªÉÉiÉÉä ʴɦÉÉMÉ&-ʴɦÉÉMÉÉiÉ {ÉÚ´ÉǺÉƪÉÉäMÉ xÉɶÉ&-iÉiÉÉä =kÉ®úºÉƪÉÉäMÉ&). Then action ceases and inertia (ºÉƺEòÉ®) takes over. Such forces can only be electric forces - +ÎMxÉ& (magnetic forces consolidate - also +{ÉÉÆ ºÉRÂóPÉÉiÉÉä ʴɱɪÉxÉÆ SÉ iÉäVɺÉƪÉÉäMÉÉiÉÂ) and gravitational force (´ÉÉiÉ) that is ever present. Thus, +ÎMxÉ& and ´ÉÉiÉ are necessary conditions (|ÉÊiɹ`öÉ) for generation of sound. Finally, sound wave travels in space while the objects from which sound is generated retain their position. EòhÉÉnù has shown that sound is a property of displaced space - {ÉÊ®ú¶Éä¹Éα±ÉRÂóMɨÉÉEòɶɺªÉ*. Thus, space is the final resting place ({É®úɪÉhÉ) of sound.

Since Ê´ÉxnÖù and +¨¤É®ú are non-interacting, total types of sound frequencies can be [8 +ÎMxÉ& (+ÎMxÉ&, VÉÉiÉ´ÉänùÉ&, ºÉ½þÉäVÉÉ, +ÊVÉ®úÉ|ɦÉ&Ö, ´Éè·ÉÉxÉ®ú&, xɪÉÉÇ{ÉÉ&, {ÉÎRÂóHò®úÉvÉÉ&,  Ê´ÉºÉÌ{É.) + 11 ´ÉÉiÉ (|ɧÉÉVɨÉÉxÉÉ, ´ªÉ´ÉnùÉiÉÉ&, ´ÉɺÉÖÊEò´ÉènÖùiÉÉ&, ®úVÉiÉÉ&, {ɯû¹ÉÉ&, ¶ªÉɨÉÉ&, EòÊ{ɱÉÉ, +ÊiɱÉÉäʽþiÉÉ&, >ðv´ÉÉÆ, +´É{ÉiÉxiÉÉ&, ´ÉètÖiÉ)] x 16 Eò±ÉÉ = 304, out of which only 12 are in the human audible range. vÉÖÎhb÷xÉÉlÉ in ºÉ´ÉǶɤnùÊxɤÉxvÉxÉ, gives their names as follows: SÉiÉÖ¯ûkÉ®úÊjɶÉiɶɴnùÉxÉÉÆ xÉɨÉÊxÉhÉǪÉ&* xxx
º¡òÉä]õÉä ®ú´ÉÉäiªÉxiɺÉÚI¨ÉÉä ¨ÉxnùÉäÊiɨÉxnùEò&* +ÊiÉiÉÒµÉÉä iÉÒµÉiÉ®úÉä ¨ÉvªÉ¶SÉÉÊiɨÉvªÉ¨É* ¨É½þÉ®ú´ÉÉä vÉxÉ®ú´ÉÉä ¨É½þÉvÉxÉ®ú´ÉºiÉlÉÉ*.

Scientists will question this by pointing out that based on its intensity; there can be infinite types of sound frequencies/waves. How can these be restricted to 304 types? The answer is: these are different types of perceived sounds (not frequencies) like types of perceived colors (and not wave lengths of light). Even though the wavelength of light vary vastly from gamma rays to radio waves, the “visible light” corresponds to wavelength range of about 400 - 700 nm with the 7 colors - VIBGYOR range: violet from 400 to about 445, indigo at about 445, blue at about 475, green at about 510, yellow at about 570, orange at about 590, and red at about 650 to 700 nm. The colors are not specific wavelengths but are spread out over a range. All wavelength of light within that range is called one color. The same principle applies to sound also.

A sound wave is the perturbations of density, pressure and velocity, where sites of maximum density alternate with sites of minimum density to generate and propagate the vibrations. They are distributed periodically and propagate in the medium with the velocity of sound (like velocity of light). The wavelength is a weak perturbation, where the relative values of the density amplitude (i.e., the greatest value of density, divided by the average density of the medium) is small as compared to unity. If we take a sound wave of large amplitude, the pressure and temperature in the maxima of density prove to be noticeably greater than their average values. The velocity of sound at these maxima is also greater. Due to this reason, the crests of the wave propagate in the environment faster than the wave as a whole. Similarly, the velocity of sound at the minima of density is less than the average velocity. Hence the troughs move slower than the whole wave and the crests tend to overtake the troughs. When a crest gets closer to a trough, the layer of the density drop becomes narrower and the wave front becomes steeper. If the crest could catch up and overtake the trough, the wave front would turn over like those in the sea. This is what we call a distinctive group of sound like the distinctive colors (VIBGYOR) for light.

Scientists will question the concept of 8 types of +ÎMxÉ& and 11 types of ´ÉÉiÉ. The 8 categories of +ÎMxÉ& arise inside a confined space. Since it is first (+ÊOÉ) among perceivables, it is called +ÎMxÉ&. These 8 types of +ÎMxÉ& can be thought of as the 8 gluons in modern science. Again scientists will question this, as the electro part of the electromagnetic medium has been described as its third derivative, but gluons do not interact electromagnetically. At RHIC in USA, particle colliders smash two beams of protons so that the gluon from one proton can interact with the charged quarks in another via the strong force, which shows that gluons can interact through strong interaction. According to Vedic physics, it leads to electromagnetic interaction also.

Vedic science recognizes only two types of fields: micro or the macro and micro (ºlÉÖ±É-ºÉÚI¨É ʴɦÉÉMÉäxÉ ÊuùvÉÉ IÉäjɨɴÉκlÉiɨÉÂ). The confined objects are also of two types: macro or classical – those that are directly perceived through our sense organs (´ªÉHò or ¨ÉiªÉÇ) and quantum – those that cannot be observed directly, but has to be inferred from its interactions (+´ªÉHò or +¨ÉÞiÉ). The micro can be called quantum, though we consider even macro objects as quantized through numbers. For example, protons and neutrons, though consists of different quarks and leptons with the help of neutrinos (thus not strictly digitized or quantized), are considered quantum particles in modern physics, which is possible only if the Vedic definition is accepted. The stars and galaxies contain both types of particles (+¨ÉÞiÉÆ ¨ÉiªÉÇ\SÉ).

In Vedic sciences, two types of non-interacting space are considered – free space (´ÉÉÁÉEòɶÉ) and confined space (nù½þ®úÉEòɶÉ) in addition to the active space between bodies like Earth and the outer space like our atmosphere (+xiÉÊ®úIÉ -iɪÉÉè̴ɪÉiɪÉÉäªÉÉæ%xiÉ®äúhÉÉEòÉ¶É +ɺÉÒiÉ iÉnùxiÉÊ®úIɨɦɴÉiÉ - ¶ÉiÉ{ÉlÉ¥ÉÉÀhɨÉÂ-7/1/2/23), which is full of energy, but is different from space. Different forces can coexist (ºÉ½þɴɺlÉÉxÉ) in a medium without coupling (OÉÎxlɤÉxvÉxÉ ºÉ¨¤ÉxvÉ). There can be different media coexisting in a field (´ÉºÉÖvÉÉxÉEòÉä¹É). In any medium, only similar forces couple linearly. The forces are described according to their mode of propagation - through conduction (ÊxɦÉÖÇVÉ), radiation (|ÉiÉÞhhÉÇ) or convection (=¦ÉªÉ¨ÉxiÉ®äúhÉ). The media that determine the nature of such propagation are described as {ÉÞl´ÉÒ, tÉè& and +xiÉÊ®úIÉ respectively. These can be equated with the color charges in particle physics, because they are associated with the density of different media and regulate their interactions.

Since even in the same medium there can be variations (iÉɺÉÉʨɪÉÆ Ê´É¦ÉÚÊiÉ̽þ xÉɨÉÉÊxÉ ªÉnùxÉäEò¶É&), they are described in different names (iÉäxÉä¨ÉÉè SÉGòiÉÖ& Eò¨ÉÇ ºÉxÉɨÉÉxÉÉè {ÉÞlÉEÂò {ÉÞlÉEÂò*). Further, in different media also, they can be described by a common name depending on their nature of propagation (iÉäxÉä¨ÉÉè iÉÖ±ªÉxÉɨÉÉxÉÉè =¦ÉÉè ±ÉÉäEòÉè ºÉ¨ÉÉ{xÉÖiÉ&). Since gluons are high energy states and act within a confining medium, they are also a form of +ÎMxÉ&. The 8 +ÎMxÉ& have earlier been described as the electric part of e.m medium (not field as generally called) because of their similarities in heating properties or high energy propagated through convection - a property shared both by gluons and electric energy. Let us now derive the number 8 by trying to produce protons from the Vedic color charges as explained above. According to “ÊiÉ®ú¶SÉÒxÉÉä Ê´ÉiÉiÉÉä ®úζ¨É®äú¹ÉÉ ¨ÉvÉ&κ´ÉnùɺÉÒ3nÖù{ÉÊ®ú κ´ÉnùɺÉÒ3iÉ”- @ñM´Éän& 10/129/5, the forces move in slanted paths in up and down directions. This has been described as “´ÉɨÉnùÊIÉhɦÉÉMÉɦªÉÉÆ iÉnùÉ näù´ÉºªÉ ¶ÉÉÐRÂóMÉhÉ&* ´ÉɨÉnäù´É¨É½þÉnäù´ÉÉè|ÉÉnÖù®úɺiÉÉÆ º´ÉªÉÆ|ɦÉÚ*”. In modern science, it is called spin.

The 8 types of +ÎMxÉ& are also called +¹]õ ´ÉºÉÖ and can be explained by the Vedic principle of SÉiÉÖ¹]õªÉÆ ´ÉÉ and iÉÆ ªÉiÉ SÉiÉÖ¹]õªÉÉ näù´ÉÉ& SÉiÉÖ̦É& ºiÉÉä¨Éè®úºiÉÖ´Éƺiɺ¨ÉÉSSÉiÉÖºiÉÉä¨É&,  which are arranged in four groups or ´ÉMÉÇ. The first of the ´ÉMÉÇ is known as the ´ÉÉ°ühÉÒ ´ÉMÉÇ. These provide the variety of the material creation. The complementary charge components of this group are known as the EÚò¨ÉÇ and EòɶªÉ{ÉÒ ¶ÉÊHò respectively. The second of the ´ÉMÉÇ is known as the +ƶÉÖ ´ÉMÉÇ. The complementary charge components of this group are known as the ¨ÉÉiÉÇhb÷ and ¦ÉÚiÉ ¶ÉÊHò respectively. They provide the main mass. The third of the ´ÉMÉÇ is known as the +ÊnùÊiÉ ´ÉMÉÇ. The complementary charge components of this group are known as the +ÉÊnùiªÉ and xÉIÉjÉ ¶ÉÊHò respectively. These are the evolutionary components. The fourth of the ´ÉMÉÇ is known as the wÉÖ´É ´ÉMÉÇ, which provides spin to the particles. The complementary charge components of this group are known as the and ´ÉÉb÷´É ¶ÉÊHò respectively. These four groups influence the stability of the atom to galaxies by generating the characteristics known as the four sets of quantum numbers in modern physics.

They act to create a state called +xiɪÉÉǨÉ, which is the same as the strong interaction. This is described as the proximity-proximity variable (ÊSÉÊiÉ) between the two interacting particles. The others are ´ÉʽþªÉÉÇ¨É - proximity-distance variable [moving neutrino-antineutrinos (xÉɺÉiªÉÉè-nù»ÉÉè) from one to the other, which induces the n-p chain part in weak interaction], ={ɪÉÉ¨É (distance-proximity variable) which is the electromagnetic interaction (Ê´ÉtÖiÉ - flowing from high density to low density) and ªÉÉiɪÉÉ¨É (distance-distance variable), which is the beta decay (|É´ÉMªÉÇ - moving out from one permanently). Modern science combines ´ÉʽþªÉÉÇ¨É and ªÉÉiɪÉÉ¨É into the weak force. These four forces can be seen in every stable particle above three quark (ÊjÉ´ÉÞiÉÂ) structures.

=tÉ¨É is the gravitational interaction, which is the primary force of creation with which the other forces interact to bring them to an equilibrium position like the orbits of planets or electrons by introducing a constant. It is independent of the other forces and acts uniformly on all particles, but its effect is perceived differently depending on the mass and distance of two objects - mass because; equal force induces different momentum on bodies of different masses and distance because; changes to the local density gradients of the medium induced by different objects differ and differently affect each other based on their distance also. The gravitational constant G is called =¯ûMÉÉªÉ |ÉÊiɹ`öÉ. This also creates different structures. The theory is in @ñM´Éän& 1/164/6, 15.

Forces are required for both motion (|Éä®úhÉ) and structure formation (´ªÉÖ½þxÉ). Motion is unidirectional (unless other forces interfere) and depends on the local density of the medium, i.e., external factors. Structure formation depends on the balancing of forces within the body from opposing directions. The forces affect the bodies in five ways (+ɺEòÎxnùiÉÆ PÉÉäÊ®úiÉEÆò ®äúÊSÉiÉÆ ´ÉʱÉiÉÆ {±ÉÖiɨÉÂ) in five different relationships. +xiɪÉÉÇ¨É confines the quarks while permitting conversion of up quark and down quarks continuously (ÊxÉiªÉMÉÊiÉ). ´ÉʽþªÉÉÇ¨É generates the n-p chain (ºÉ¨|ɺÉÉnùMÉÊiÉ) to bring stability to atoms (no need for inventing the concept of binding energy as is done in modern physics). ={ɪÉÉ¨É tends to bring stability by flowing from high density to low density and helping in formation of higher atoms (ªÉYÉMÉÊiÉ). ªÉÉiɪÉÉ¨É generates the three types (ÊjÉ´ÉÞiÉÂ) of emissions (ºÉɨ{É®úÉªÉ MÉÊiÉ): α-emissions, β-emiassions, and γ-emissions, which are related to different energy levels (®úVɺiɨÉÉ䦪ÉÉÆ ªÉÖHòºªÉ ºÉƪÉÉäMÉÉä%ªÉ¨ÉxÉxiÉ´ÉÉxÉÂ* iÉɦªÉÉÆ ÊxÉ®úÉEÞòiÉɦªÉɺiÉÖ ºÉk´É¤ÉÖnÂùvªÉÉ ÊxÉ´ÉiÉÇiÉää). These are called as +ɪÉÖ, MÉÉè and VªÉÉäÊiÉ in the Vedic theory. The theory is described in ªÉVÉÖ´ÉäÇn& ´ÉÉVɺÉxÉäªÉÒ ºÉÆʽþiÉÉ 1/8 - vÉÚ®ú漃 vÉÚ´ÉÇ vÉÚ´ÉÇxiɨÉÂ. We will separately discuss this. When these 5 forces interact, they become 11 types of interaction (2l + 1, l = 5) called the 11 ´ÉÉiÉ. Their effects are described as equivalent to: “{É®úÉ´ÉÞkɨÉ{ÉÉ´ÉÞkÉÆ MÉÞ½þÒiÉÆ ±ÉPÉÖºÉÆÊYÉiɨÉÂ* >ðnÂùv´ÉÉÇÎiIÉ|ɨÉvÉ&ÊIÉ{iÉÆ ºÉxvÉÉÊ®úiÉ Ê´ÉvÉÉÊ®úiɨÉÂ* ¶ªÉäxÉ{ÉÉiÉÆ MÉVÉ{ÉÉiÉÆ OÉɽþOÉÉÁÆ iÉlÉè´É SÉ*”.

When the big bang (we prefer the big bounce of quantum gravity, though differently) occurs due to ºÉƺEòÉ®ú¶Éä¹É (to be explained later), the rebounding forces in the vast expanse confined within xÉèʨɹÉÉ®úhªÉ interact moving from the center to the periphery (MÉÊiÉ) and back (+ÉMÉÊiÉ). Where they neutralize each other, it becomes the equilibrium point (κlÉÊiÉ). The primordial equilibrium point (κlÉÊiÉ) is called ¥ÉÀÉ (¥ÉÀ ´Éè ºÉ´ÉǺªÉ |ÉlɨÉVÉÆ* ¥ÉÀ ´Éè ºÉ´ÉǺªÉ |ÉÊiɹ`öÉ* ¶ÉiÉ{ÉlÉ¥ÉÉÀhɨÉ 6/1/1/6-7). The same principle works at all levels and is called the center of mass around which every created object rests. Hence IT has been designated as the Creator. The inward moving force from the periphery to the center (+ÉMÉÊiÉ) is called ʴɹhÉÖ&, as IT pervades everything (ʴɹ±ÉÞ ´ªÉÉ{iÉÉè). Because IT consolidates (+ɽþ®úhÉ vɨÉÉÇ), IT is called the provider for sustenance (κlÉÊiÉ) during creation. The force moving outward (MÉÊiÉ) from the center to the periphery (Ê´ÉIÉä{ÉhÉ vɨÉÉÇ) creating free space is called , because we can enjoy () anything only when we conjoin it through our respective sense organs (<ÎxpùªÉ) harmoniously (¦ÉÉäMªÉiÉÉ - Eò¨ÉǺ´É°ü{ÉiÉÉ).

If one of the forces is added to or removed from the equilibrium point (κlÉÊiÉ), it generates motion in the same direction. Depending upon the strength of the force added or removed, the equilibrium resolves into an appropriate velocity in that direction. Thus, theoretically, it has the maximum possible potential velocity. Such motion dominated by incoming ʴɹhÉÖ& (¥ÉÀÉMÉ̦ÉiÉ Ê´É¹hÉÖ&) is called ºÉÉä¨É and that dominated by outgoing (¥ÉÀÉMÉ̦ÉiÉ ) is called +ÎMxÉ&. Since ºÉÉä¨É consolidates +ÎMxÉ& and reduces motion, it is cool. It generates negative charge that always moves towards the denser area or the center of mass. By confining the positive charge, it becomes mass at a later stage (through +É{É&). Because of the opposite effect, +ÎMxÉ& is hot and generates positive charge. Unless confined by negative charge, it is released as heat. While ¥ÉÀÉ, ʴɹhÉÖ& and are not physically perceptible within the limitations of normal human beings, +ÎMxÉ and ºÉÉä¨É are physically perceptible and constitute everything in the Universe (+ÎMxɹÉÉä¨ÉÉi¨ÉEò VÉMÉiÉÂ). These five (¥ÉÀÉ, ʴɹhÉÖ&, ) are called +Éi¨ÉIÉ®ú because they are the first perceptible deformations (Ê´ÉEòÉ®ú) in the primordial Universe. When these deformations accumulate considerably (ÊSɪɨÉÉxÉ |ÉÉEÞòiÉ ¥ÉÀ), they become the genesis for ʴɷɺÉÞ]Âõ of the same name and are the source of the five (·ÉäiÉÉ·ÉäiÉ®ú ={ÉÊxɹÉnù 1/5) fundamental forces described earlier. The (MÉÖhɦÉÚiÉÉi¨ÉEò IÉ®ú¥ÉÀ±ÉIÉhÉ) ʴɷɺÉÞ] or ʴɷɺÉÞVÉ& are so-called because according to iÉèÊkÉ®úÒªÉ ¥ÉÉÀhÉ 3/12/9/8 they create the physical Universe (ʴɷɺÉÞVÉ& ). These are the 5 iÉx¨ÉÉjÉÉ of Samkhya. Here the first interactive characteristics are generated.

¥ÉÀÉ, ʴɹhÉÖ&, together are called ºÉƪÉiÉÒ±ÉÉäEòÉÊvɹ`öÉiÉÉ º´Éɪɨ¦ÉÚ´É¥ÉÀÉ, who is expressed by these aspects. Hence ¥ÉÀÉ had 5 faces, out of which ¯ûpù& is said to have cut off one leaving four. Since +ÎMxÉ& and ºÉÉä¨É always coexist and their proportion determines all chemical properties, they are treated as one and is collectively called vɨÉÇ&. These (¥ÉÀÉ, ʴɹhÉÖ&, and vɨÉÇ&) constitute the four faces (|É´ÉÞÊkÉuùÉ®ú) of ¥ÉÀÉ. Since IT is not physically involved in creation, IT is said to be Eò¨É±ÉÉänÂù¦É´É&, who evoles ({ÉÖ¹{É Ê´ÉEò¶ÉxÉä) in {ÉÖ¹Eò®ú{ÉhÉÇ, as ºÉÊ±É±É (+É{ÉÉä ´ÉÉ ) – move without attachment. ʴɹhÉÖ and are jointly called GòxnùºÉÒ±ÉÉäEòÉÊvɹ`öÉiÉÉ {ÉÉ®ú¨Éä¹`ö¬Ê´É¹hÉÖ&, who expresses ITself as ʴɹhÉÖ& and xÉÉ®úɪÉhÉ& and the energy associated with IT as ¨É½þɨÉɪÉÉ and ªÉÉäMɨÉɪÉÉ. and ºÉÉä¨É together are known as ®úÉänùºÉÒ±ÉÉäEòÉÊvɹ`öÉiÉÉ ¯ûpù. Hence these are said as ITs three eyes – through which IT is revealed. IT has two aspects. When IT is dominated by Ê´ÉIÉä{ÉhÉvɨÉÉÇ , IT is called ¯ûpù&. When IT is dominated by ºÉÉä¨É(SÉxpù¶ÉäJÉ®ú), IT is called ʶɴÉ& (ªÉÉ iÉä ¯ûpù ʶɴÉÉ iÉxÉÖ®úPÉÉä®úÉ%{ÉÉ{ÉEòÉʶÉxÉÒ-¯ûpùÉvªÉɪÉ).

According to @ñM´Éänù 6/69/8, the competitive interaction (º{ÉrùÉÇ) between and ʴɹhÉÖ gives rise to jÉävÉÉ ºÉ½þ»É¨ÉÂ. This competitive interaction is for the local dominance by either of the two and has infinite variations. The ºÉɽþ»ÉÒ of ʴɹhÉÖ gives rise to confining potential (+¶ÉxÉɪÉÉ´ÉÞÊkÉ), which creates complementary potential (+ÉvÉÉ®úÉvÉäªÉ ¦ÉÉ´É), to generate two types of complements known as ªÉÉä¹ÉÉ-´ÉÞ¹ÉÉ. These complements permeate everything and turn into all structures through condensation due to high energy induced by the confinement imposed by equal but oppositely directed forces (+zÉ-+zÉÉnù ¦ÉÉ´É). This gives rise to positive and negative charges (ʨÉlÉÖxɨÉÂ), which starts all structures as described in BäiÉ®äúªÉ¥ÉÉÀhɨÉ 12/12/23. Thus, one ¥ÉÀ becomes five non-describable forms ({É\SÉEò±É).
                ¹ÉÉäb÷¶ÉÒ           +¶ÉxÉɪÉÉ´ÉÞÊkÉþ          ªÉÉä¹ÉÉ-´ÉÞ¹ÉÉ       +zÉ-+zÉÉnù ¦ÉÉ´É           Ê¨ÉlÉÖxɨÉÂ
This gives rise to structure formation as described in ¶ÉiÉ{ÉlÉ¥ÉÉÀhɨÉ 13/7/1/1¥ÉÀ ´Éè º´ÉªÉ¨¦ÉÚ iÉiÉÉä%iÉ{ªÉiÉ* iÉnèIÉiÉ* xÉ ´Éè iÉ{ɺªÉÉxÉxiªÉ¨ÉκiÉ* ½þxiÉɽÆþ ¦ÉÚiÉä¹´ÉÉi¨ÉÉxÉÆ VÉÖ½þ´ÉÉÊxÉ ¦ÉÚiÉÉÊxÉ SÉÉi¨ÉÉÊxÉ <ÊiÉ* iÉiÉ ºÉ´Éæ¹ÉÖ ¦ÉÚiÉä¹´ÉÉi¨ÉÉxÉÆ ½Öþi´ÉÉ ¦ÉÚiÉÉÊxÉ SÉÉi¨ÉÊxÉ ºÉ´Éæ¹ÉÉÆ ¦ÉÚiÉÉxÉÉÆ ¸Éä¹`ö¬Æ º´ÉÉ®úÉVªÉÆ +ÉÊvÉ{ÉiªÉÆ {ɪÉæiÉÂ*”. This is known as the ºÉ´ÉǽÖþiɪÉYÉ (@ñEÂò 10/90/8). The mechanism is called pentafication ({É\SÉÒEò®úhÉ - ªÉÉÊxÉ {É\SÉvÉÉ jÉÒÊhÉ jÉÒÊhÉ iÉ䦪ÉÉä xÉ VªÉÉªÉ {É®ú¨ÉxªÉnùκiÉ - UôÉxnùÉäMªÉ ={ÉÊxɹÉnÂù 2/21/3. Also, ªÉnùIÉ®Æú {É\SÉÊ´ÉvÉÆ ºÉ¨ÉäÊiÉ ªÉÖVÉÉä ªÉÖHòÉ +ʦɪÉiÉ ºÉƴɽþÎxiÉ* ºÉiªÉºªÉ ºÉiªÉ¨ÉxÉÖ ªÉjÉ ªÉÖVªÉiÉä iÉjÉ näù´ÉÉ& ºÉ´ÉÇä BEòҦɴÉþÎxiÉ*). In this process everyone interacts with each other wherein one becomes the base for the others (+ÉvÉÉ®úÉvÉäªÉ ¦ÉÉ´É). The |ÉÊ´ÉÊ´ÉHò-|Éʴɹ]õ-ºÉÞ¹]õ ¥ÉÀ or +´ªÉªÉ-+IÉ®ú-IÉ®ú become five categories each revealing different aspects.

Through {É\SÉÒEò®úhÉ they create five entities (+hÉÖ¦ÉÚiÉÉi¨ÉEò {ÉÎ\SÉEÞòiÉ IÉ®±ÉIÉhÉ) called {É\SÉVÉxÉ (|ÉÉhÉ, +É{É&, ´ÉÉEÂò, +zÉÉnù, +zÉ and not the four Varnas and ÊxɹÉÉnù, as has been generally interpreted by some). This is dominated by +´ªÉªÉ. But confinement is possible only with charge generated by +ÎMxɹÉÉä¨É. Hence these have no form. It creates conceptual aspects (¨ÉxÉ´ªÉÉ{ÉÉ® - ¦ÉɴɺÉÞι]õú). With further pentafication, they became (®äúhÉÖ¦ÉÚiÉÉi¨ÉEò {É\SÉ-{ÉÎ\SÉEÞòiÉ IÉ®±ÉIÉhÉ) {ÉÖ®ú\VÉxÉ (´Éänù, ±ÉÉäEò, näù´É, ¦ÉÚiÉ, {ɶÉÖ), which is dominated by +IÉ®. This also has no form due to similar reasons. Here the 4 ´Éänù have to be interpreted as the perception of dimension, motion, radiation and confinement as defined by MÉÉä{ÉlÉ ¥ÉÉÀhÉ (@ñSÉÉ& ¨ÉÚÌkÉ&, ªÉÉVÉÖÆÊ¹É MÉÊiÉ, ºÉÉ¨É¨ÉªÉ iÉäVÉ, +lÉ´ÉÉÇÎRÂóMÉ®úºÉ¨ÉÉ{É&). Similarly {ɶÉÖ has to be defined as the observation enabling agencies (ªÉnù{ɶªÉiÉ iÉiÉ {ɶÉÖ& - ¶ÉiÉ{ÉlÉ¥ÉÉÀhɨÉ 6/1/1/2. These are of five types: UôxnùÉÆ漃 {ÉÉä¹É +zÉÉÊxÉ ºÉʱɱÉÉxªÉMxɪÉ& Gò¨ÉÉiÉÂ* {É\SÉäiÉä {ɶɴÉ& ÊxÉiªÉÆ |ÉÉhÉä¹´ÉäiÉä |ÉÊiÉι`öiÉÉ. It creates functional aspects (|ÉÉhÉ´ªÉÉ{ÉÉ® - MÉÖhɺÉÞι]õú).  Pentafication of these, lead to structure ({ÉÖ®ú) formation (º´ÉªÉ¨¦ÉÚ, {É®ú¨Éä¹`öÒ, ºÉÚªÉÇ, {ÉÞÊlÉ´ÉÒ, SÉxpù¨ÉÉ - ¦ÉÚiÉÉi¨ÉEò {É\SÉ-{É\SÉ-{ÉÎ\SÉEÞòiÉ IÉ®±ÉIÉhÉ). Here ºÉÚªÉÇ includes the galaxies also (their creation and evolution are treated as similar). The other terms should be interpreted similarly. This is dominated by IÉ®. These lead to structure formation (´ÉÉEÂò´ªÉÉ{ÉÉ® - Ê´ÉEòÉ®úºÉÞι]õ). Thus, {É®úÉi{É®ú, 5 ʴɷɺÉÞ], 5 {É\SÉVÉxÉ, 5 {ÉÖ®ú\VÉxÉ, make up 16 Eò±ÉÉ (¹ÉÉäb÷¶ÉEò±ÉʨÉnÆù ºÉ´ÉǨÉÂ). Since each of the 16 has different characteristics and since each of these are responsible for the material creation, each of these influence sound generation also.


Only the above interpretation of two types of ´ÉÉEÂò harmonizes with ¥ÉÀºÉÚjÉ 3/2/11 - =¦ÉªÉʱÉRÂóMÉƺɴÉÇjÉ Ê½þ because we cannot use either ºÉ®úº´ÉiÉÒ ´ÉÉEÂò or the +ɨ¦ÉÞhÉÒ ´ÉÉEÂò in isolation. Patanjali ({ÉiÉ\VÉʱÉ) has shown that whenever we use a word, it is always related to a concept (YÉÉxɨÉÂ) associated with some object ({ÉnùÉlÉÇ). In the perception “this (object - +lÉÇ) is like that (the concept expressed by nomenclature or in words - {Énù), hence it is that (name)”, one can describe “that” only if one has perceived it earlier. Perception requires prior measurement of multiple aspects or fields and storing the result of measurement in a centralized system (memory) to be retrieved when needed. The first experience of decoding of the signals is the sensory impression that is called ÊxÉÌ´ÉEò±{ÉEò, because it is an impression in isolation. This is uni-modal and the simplest of the transactions that occur between our sensory modes and the observable. Perception is a combination of such sensory impressions and is multi-modal or ºÉÊ´ÉEò±{ÉEò. To understand a certain aspect, we just refer to the data bank and see whether it matches with any of the previous readings or not. The answer is either yes or no or uncertain. If it is yes, we say “it is that”, if no, we say “it is not that” and if it does not match, we say, “do not know” or “may be”. Since measurement is a process of comparison between similars, cognition occurs when sensation accompanies an interpretation with reference to what is already experienced and stored in memory (º¨ÉÞÊiÉ{ÉÚ´ÉÉÇxÉÖ¦ÉÚiÉÉlÉÇÊ´É¹ÉªÉ YÉÉxɨÉÖSªÉiÉä).

Further, the words +¶É´nù¨É have to be interpreted as double negative for ¶É´nù¨ÉÂ. This implies extra hidden meaning. The initial YÉÉxÉ-¤É±É-ÊGòªÉÉ of ¥ÉÀ being universal in cognition (ºÉɨÉÉxªÉ°ü{Éi´ÉäxÉ ºÉ´ÉÇʴɹɪÉEòi´ÉÉiÉ {ÉÊ®úSUäôt®úÉʽþiªÉäxÉ {ÉÚhÉÇi´ÉÉiÉ +Ê´ÉÎSUôzÉ°ü{ɨÉÂ), is in the nature of internal ´ÉÉEÂò that is not in the speech form (+ÉxiÉ®úÉʦɱÉÉ{ÉÉi¨ÉEò¶É´nùxɺ´É¦ÉÉ´É&). The <ÇIÉhÉ of ¥ÉÀ is not like physical observation, but conceptual in nature (|ÉÉEÞòiÉäSUôÉÊnù´ÉiÉ ´ÉÉÁʴɹɪÉɦÉÉ´ÉÉiÉ ¶ÉÖrù|ÉEòɶɨɪÉ) just like a new-born child senses everything without being able to express its feelings in speech form (ªÉlÉÉ Ê½þ ºÉtÉäVÉÊxÉiÉʶɶÉÉä& ºlÉڱɰü{ÉɽÆþ¦ÉÉ´ÉɦÉÉ´Éä%Ê{É +xiÉ&ºÉÆ®ú¨¦É°ü{ÉÉä VÉb÷i´ÉʴɱÉIÉhÉÉä¨ÌÕtªÌþ¦ªÉُÌǪɱÌÌâ¦ÉÌ¥ÌÌâ%ѲtÌ tÌyÌÌ Ìú®ÍZÌÜùÌ²ªÉ ̥̲ͨªÉÌÍÌ ÍÌÏ¥ÌFò±Ì D¥Ì̷ɦÉþÌ¥Ì:*). It is not expressed in alternative speech form as +-½þ etc (+½Æþ|ÉiªÉ´É¨É¶ÉÉæ ªÉ& |ÉEò¶ÉÉi¨ÉÉÊ{É ´ÉÉM´É{ÉÖ&* xÉɺÉÉè Ê´ÉEò±{É& ºÉÁÖHò uùªÉÉ{ÉäIÉÒ Ê´ÉÊxɶSɪÉ& - ¸ÉÒ|ÉiªÉʦÉYÉɪÉɨÉÂ). Since it is not in speech form as +-½þ etc, it is +¶É´nù¨ÉÂ. But since it is ´ÉÉEÂò, it is +¶É´nù¨ÉÂ. This is the proper interpretation of +¶É´nù¨É in the ¥ÉÀºÉÚjÉ 1/1/5 - an adjective (ÊGòªÉÉ Ê´É¶Éä¹ÉhÉ) for <ÇIÉiÉä&.

Some may question the above description of conceptual observation without external objects (ʴɹɪÉ), which are confined objects (Ê´É ¶É´nùÉä ʽþ ʴɶÉä¹ÉÉlÉÇ ÊºÉxÉÉäÊiÉ´ÉÇxvɨÉÖSªÉiÉä * ʴɶÉä¹ÉähÉ ÊºÉxÉÉäiÉÒÊiÉ Ê´É¹ÉªÉÉäƒiÉÉä ÊxɪÉɨÉEò) on the ground that even the sensing of something by a child requires an external object. At the beginning there were no objects. Then how and what did ¥ÉÀ observe? For answering this, we have to examine the mechanism of perception. At any moment, our sense organs are bombarded by a multitude of stimuli. But only one of them is given a clear channel at any instant to go up to the thalamus and then to the cerebral cortex, so that like photographic frames, we perceive one discrete frame at every instant (……¨ÉxÉÉä VÉxiÉÉäÌ´ÉvÉÒªÉiÉä* iɺ¨ÉÉnÂù ªÉÖMÉ{ÉnùjÉɺªÉ OɽþhÉÆ xÉÉä{É{ÉtiÉä*), but due to the high speed of their reception, it appears as continuous perception (¨ÉxɺÉÉ {ɪÉæÊiÉ Gò¨É¶ÉÉä ʴɹɪÉÉÊxɨÉÉxÉÂ* ʴɹɪÉɪÉiÉxɺlÉÉä ʽþ ¦ÉÚiÉÉi¨ÉÉ IÉäjɨÉÉʸÉiÉ*). This happens due to an active reception (<ÎxpùªÉ) and transport system (¨ÉxÉ) against concentration gradient. Unlike the sensory apparatuses (<ÎxpùªÉ) that are subject specific, the transport system in the opposite direction within the body happens for all types of sensory impulses by one agency called mind (¨ÉxÉ or |ÉYÉÉxÉÉi¨ÉÉ). While this is absolutely essential in any perception, it alone cannot lead to cognition. The transported unimodal information needs to be processed to become multimodal for cognition (+Éi¨Épù´ªÉÆ näù½þºÉƸɪÉhÉÉÎx´ÉiÉÆ Eò®úhÉÉÊvÉι`öiÉÆ ªÉlÉÉÊ´ÉÊvÉ ¦ÉÉäMÉÉxÉÖ{ɦÉÖRÂóHäò* YÉÉxÉÆ ¤ÉÖÊrù¶SÉ ¨ÉxɶSÉ iɺªÉ ¦ÉÉäMÉÉÊvÉEò®úhÉä Eò®úhÉÉÊxÉ*).

In communication technology, in addition to encryption (language phrased in terms of algorithms executed on certain computing machines - sequence of symbols), compression (quantification and reduction of complexity - grammar) and data transmission (sound, signals), there is a necessity of mixing information (mass of text, volume of intermediate data, time over which such process will be executed) related to different aspects (readings generated from different fields), with a common code (data structure - strings) to bring it to a format “it is like/ not like that”. Such mixing is done through data, text, spread-sheets, pictures, voice and video. Data are discretely defined fields. What the user sees is controlled by software - a collection of computer programs. What the hardware sees is bytes and bits.

In perception, data are the response of our sense organs to individual external stimuli. Text is the excitation of the neural network in specific regions of the brain. Spreadsheets are the memories of earlier perception. Pictures are the inertia of motion generated in memory (thought) after a fresh impulse, linking related past experiences. Voice is the disturbance created due to the disharmony between the present thought and the stored image (this or that, yes or no). Video is the net thought that emerges out of such interaction. Software is the memory. Hardware includes the neural network. Bytes and bits are the changing interactions of the sense organs (string) with the respective fields generated by objects evolving in time. Still, it requires a conscious agent to mix these signals and convert them to electro-chemical information to cognize and utilize them.

In perception, these tasks are done by the neural activity in the brain that is called intellect - ¤ÉÖÊrù or Ê´ÉYÉÉxÉÉi¨ÉÉ. Though, it is not directly perceptible (+º¡Öò®úhɺ´É¦ÉÉ´É), it is inferred from its actions - firing of positrons in specific areas of brain during perception. Hence even after the breath stops, a person may not be brain dead as the intellect may still be functional. While mind facilitates the transport of various impulses, their mixing and interpretation of the state of superposition of various thoughts/inputs in memory, is done by this transitory - intellect - ¤ÉÖÊrù (¤ÉÖräù¯ûkÉ®úEòɱÉÉ SÉ ´ÉänùxÉÉ où¶ªÉiÉä ¤ÉÖvÉè&). During perception mediated by mind, we transport-in the external impulses and search the memory (activated by +½þRÂóEòÉ® or ¨É½þÉxÉÉi¨ÉÉ - the repository of memory) for alternatives for matching with the various perceived stimuli. During cognition mediated by intellect, we mix the various stimuli and zero in on one concept (….¤ÉÖÊrù®úÉi¨ÉÉxÉÖMÉÉ =i{ÉÉiÉäxÉ Ê´ÉvÉÒªÉiÉä* iÉnùÉʸÉiÉÉ Ê½þ ºÉÆYÉè¹ÉÉ ¤ÉÖÊrùºiɺªÉèʹÉhÉÒ ¦É´ÉäiÉÂ*). Thus, we have to consider transitory intellect that cognizes, separately from the ever present mind that perceives. Intellect regulates mind both ways. But being a transitory processor generated just before cognition (¤ÉÖÊrù¯ûi{ÉtiÉä EòɪÉÉÇx¨ÉxɺiÉÖi{ÉzɨÉä´É ʽþ* ¤ÉÖräùMÉÖÇhÉÊ´ÉvÉÉxÉäxÉ ¨ÉxɺiÉnÂùMÉÖhÉ´ÉnÂù ¦É´ÉäiÉÂ*), and being functional in sequence (Gò¨Énù̶É) only, intellect also cannot be conscious (explained below).

Result of measurement (YÉÉxɨÉÂ) by an observer (YÉÉiÉÞ°ü{É pù¹]õÉ) is a process of comparison (ºÉÆÊ´ÉÊnùiÉ nù¶ÉÇxÉ) between similar states of the measured (YÉÉxÉ°ü{É où¶ªÉ) at any given instant (Gò¨É°ü{ÉÒ EòÉ±É - explained later). Independent of observation or measurement, the measured object continues to evolve in time. Where the result of measurement is known (+xÉÖ¦ÉÚiÉÉʦɴªÉÊHòEò) the time associated with it is past (+iÉÒiÉ). Where the result of measurement is continuing, (º´É´ªÉÉ{ÉÉ®úÉä{ÉÉ°üfø) the time associated with it is present (´ÉkÉǨÉÉxÉ). Where the result of measurement is not known, but will be known or is predictable (¦ÉʴɹªÉnùʦɴªÉÊHòEò) the time associated with it is future (+xÉÉMÉiÉ). This sequence (Gò¨É) continues unabated. Capacity to know the whole sequence of evolution is Omniscience ºÉ´ÉÇYÉiÉÉ. Since our measuring instruments (including sense organs) are capable of measuring the whole sequence of events only in phases, future becomes uncertain for us, as we are unable to foresee the extraneous effects that may affect the present state to make it unpredictable. This, and not the Heisenberg postulate or its modifications by Ozawa and others, is the cause for uncertainty. The Schrödinger’s cat has a determined fate, but it will not be known to us till observation at ‘now’.

Once the result of measurement is fixed for a particular instant, it does not change, though the object continues to change with time. This fixed result of measurement (+Gò¨Énù̶É) is cognizable to us (YÉÉxÉ°ü{É où¶ªÉ). The process of storing it (ºÉƪÉÉäMÉ) as a definitive memory creating impression (´ÉÉävÉ), is the cognition (ºÉÆÊ´ÉÊnùiÉ nù¶ÉÇxÉ). After such storage, the perceptual/cognitive sequence ends (ºÉƪÉÉäMÉ nù¶ÉÇxÉEòɪÉÉǴɺÉÉxÉ). Unlike intellect, which mixes the individual perceptions sequentially (Gò¨ÉnùÌ¶É - what I see is the one I touch or I taste, etc) to a common electro-chemical perception, whatever remains invariant (+Gò¨Énù̶É) as “I” in all such acceptance sequences, is the observer (YÉÉiÉÞ°ü{É pù¹]õÉ). Thus, it has to be different from intellect. Because it is not confined, it cannot be written down in an equation, as equations deal with mathematics, which is a science of numbers and numbers are the perception of differentiation between similar confined objects – if there are no similars and the object has limited dimension, it is one, otherwise it is infinity. If there are similars, it is many, which can be 2,3,….n. By definition, all mathematics using infinity is void.

But such logic is not applicable in the primordial state of the Universe after final annihilation – |É±ÉªÉ or the big crunch (though nothing is crunched – everything dissolves to the primordial soup in the opposite reaction - total degeneracy in a condition of maximum entropy). The word |É±ÉªÉ means |É-±ÉªÉ or moving towards submergence with its cause (xÉɶÉ& EòÉ®úhɱɪÉ), not absolute nonexistence of everything. How could that state (singularity) be described in the absence of all perceivables? The answer lies in the mechanism of perception explained in ¥ÉÀºÉÚjÉ 3-2-18 to 21. During |ɱɪÉ, IT remains in IT’s Supreme Glory, but no other observable remains or no action takes place. This has been described by |ɶxÉÉä{ÉÊxɹÉnÂù 4/2 as: ªÉlÉÉ MÉÉMªÉÇ ¨É®úÒSɪÉÉäƒEÇòºªÉɺiÉÆ MÉSUôiÉ& ºÉ´ÉÉÇ BiÉϺ¨ÉºiÉäVÉÉä¨Éhb÷±É BEòҦɴÉÎxiÉ iÉÉ& {ÉÖxÉ& {ÉÖxɯûnùªÉiÉ& |ÉSÉ®úxiªÉä´ÉÆ ½þ ´Éè iÉiºÉ´ÉÈ {É®äú näù´Éä ¨ÉxɺªÉäEòҦɦɴÉÊiÉ* iÉäxÉ iÉÁæ¹É {ÉÖ¯û¹ÉÉä xÉ ¸ÉÖhÉÉäÊiÉ xÉ {ɶªÉÊiÉ xÉ ÊVÉQÉÊiÉ xÉ ®úºÉªÉiÉä xÉ º{ÉÞ¶ÉiÉä xÉÉʦɴÉnùiÉä xÉÉnùkÉä xÉÉxÉxnùªÉiÉä xÉ Ê´ÉºÉÞVÉiÉä xÉäªÉɪÉiÉä º´ÉÊ{ÉiÉÒiªÉÉSÉIÉiÉä*. Further, ¤ÉÞ½þnùÉ®úhªÉEò ={ÉÊxɹÉiÉ 4/3/23 elaborates: ªÉuèù iÉzÉ {ɶªÉÊiÉ {ɶªÉx´Éè iÉzÉ {ɶªÉÊiÉ xÉ Ê½þ pù¹]ÖõqÇù¹]äõÌ´É{ÉÊ®ú±ÉÉä{ÉÉä Ê´ÉtiÉäƒÊ´ÉxÉÉʶÉi´ÉÉzÉiÉÖ iÉÎnÂùuùiÉҪɨÉκiÉ iÉiÉÉäƒxªÉÊuù¦ÉHÆò ªÉi{ɶªÉäiÉÂ*.

According to {É®úÉÎ\SÉJÉÉÊxÉ - Eò`öÉä{ÉÊxɹÉnÂù 4/1, our sense organs and all measuring instruments “move outward” to perceive (measure). The observer is in the opposite direction to the observed with the instrument (sense organs) mediating observation. Let us take the example of the reflection of the Sun in water (+iÉ B´É SÉÉä{ɨÉÉ ºÉÚªÉÇEòÉÊnù´ÉiÉ - ¥ÉÀºÉÚjÉ 3-2-18). The word ºÉÚªÉÇEòÉ (like {ÉÖjÉEòÉ addressed by näù´ÉÉ& to Ê{ÉiÉ®ú&, when the later went to the former seeking advice, or ½þÉäjÉEòÉ) instead of ºÉÚªÉÇ, is important. What we call “seeing” is actually the interaction of the incoming electromagnetic radiation with the electromagnetic field set up by our eyes. We do not see the Sun or any object directly, but only the radiation emitted by it (ÊSÉiÉäÊxÉvÉäªÉ Ê{Éhb÷). But when we touch something, we cut out the radiation and touch the mass (ÊSÉiªÉ Ê{Éhb÷) directly. Thus, iÉèÊkÉ®úÒªÉ +É®úhªÉEò 1/8 says: +xÉ´ÉhÉæ <¨Éä ¦ÉÚ¨ÉÒ* <ªÉÆ SÉɺÉÉè SÉ ®úÉänùºÉÒ*, because either way we cannot give a complete description. When we see the Sun’s reflection in water, we cut out the radiation from the Sun directly, which are absorbed by the water. What we then see is possible only in the presence of the Sun, i.e., even the reflection of the Sun needs Sunlight to be perceived (hence ºÉÚªÉÇEòÉ). It is similar to the Sun proper (ºÉÉoù¶ªÉ¨É - iÉÎnÂù¦ÉzÉi´Éä ºÉÊiÉ iÉnÂùMÉiɦÉÚªÉÉävɨÉÇ´Ék´É¨ÉÂ*). Here indicates ºÉ¨ÉÖSSÉªÉ - synthesis of above two aspects.

Perception or measurement is observation of transformation ({ÉÊ®úhÉɨÉ). Transformations are of two types: material or constituent transformation (+Éè{ÉénùÉÊxÉEò {ÉÊ®úhÉɨÉ) and relational transformations (±ÉÉIÉÊhÉEò {ÉÊ®úhÉɨÉ). If the object is constituted of many different materials, then it can have constituent transformation due to addition or reduction of other materials. But if it is of one material, then the only transformation possible is in its relation with others. For example, even though pure water is a compound, it behaves differently from its constituents and appears as a single entity. When added with salt or sugar etc, it has material transformation. With heat, it can change its state. By itself, it can transform shape according to the (relational) container (+hb÷´ÉÞÊkÉi´É). Motion is also relational transformation, as it couples the object to different positions in space and time. Since the cognition of “I” is always related to all perceptions, the example of the reflection of Sun in different types of water like that of a well, pond, lake, river and sea, is apt. The “I” remains universal in all cognitions, though they appear differently. Happiness or sorrow may be caused by different objects or events, but in all such perceptions, the “I” remains same. It does not grow or reduce. It is not affected by these transformations, like the Sun is not affected when the water flows or is muddied and its reflection is affected by such actions.

Some may question this view on the ground that when we look at a reflection, there is no chiral parity, but it is chiral conjugate only (when we move our right hand, the reflection moves its left hand). It does not give a true picture. ¥ÉÀºÉÚjÉ 3-2-19 explains this as +¨¤ÉÖ´ÉnÂùOɽþhÉÉkÉÖ xÉ iÉlÉÉi´É¨ÉÂ*. When water flows from a higher position to lower down, if it faces an obstruction, it takes whatever diversion is available and goes till its surface balance is maintained. On the other side (side facing Earth), it acquires the shape of the Earth’s surface. If we could look from the opposite direction and see that surface of water, it will be like casting of a die for using mould to create a shape. When this shape is reflected back to us, we see true similarity. Thus, Eò`öÉä{ÉÊxɹÉnÂù 2/2/9 says, +ÎMxɪÉÇlÉèEòÉä ¦ÉÖ´ÉxÉÆ |Éʴɹ]õÉä °ü{ÉÆ °ü{ÉÆ |ÉÊiÉ°ü{ÉÉä ¤É¦ÉÚ´É* BEòºiÉlÉÉ ºÉ´ÉǦÉÚiÉÉxiÉ®úÉi¨ÉÉ °ü{ÉÆ °ü{ÉÆ |ÉÊiÉ°ü{ÉÉä ¤Éʽþ¶SÉ*. The subsequent ºÉÚjÉÉ& extend this logic. The interpretation of this ºÉÚjÉ with the example of the reflection of the Moon is misleading, as Moon does not have its own light (º´ÉVªÉÉäÊiÉ), but shines in reflected light ({É®úVªÉÉäÊiÉ).


According to ¶ÉÊHòºÉÚjÉ ¦ÉɹªÉ¨ÉÂ, {É®ú¨ÉʶɴÉÉä VÉMÉiÉ Eò´É±ÉªÉzÉÊ{É xÉ ºÉÉ´ÉÉÇi¨ªÉäxÉ +Ê{É i´ÉƶÉäxÉ ºÉƺEòÉ®úÉi¨ÉxÉÉ ºlÉÉ{ɪÉÊiÉ* ºÉ B´É ºÉƺEòÉ®ú& <Ç·É®ú ʺɺÉÞIÉɪÉÉÆ ºÉ½þEòÉ®úÒ¦ÉÚiÉ& +xªÉlÉÉ ´Éè¹É¨ªÉxÉêPÉÞhªÉÉ{ÉkÉä®úÊxÉ´ÉÉ®úhÉÉiÉÂ*. This effect is known in modern quantum gravity theories as the Big Bounce, though it has been confused with colliding galaxies at singularity. When we look at the Universe, we find that time evolution (¹ÉbÂ÷¦ÉÉ´ÉÊ´ÉEòÉ®úÉ&) follows a fixed pattern. Everything evolves from being (seed stage) to becoming, transforms due to addition of external factors, grows, transmutes due to the opposite process and finally decomposes to the constituent particles (VÉɪÉiÉä, +κiÉ, Ê´É{ÉÊ®úhɨÉiÉä, ´ÉrÇùiÉä, +{ÉIÉÒªÉiÉä, Ê´ÉxɶªÉÊiÉ).

This is a physical principle of cyclic time (ºÉ¨´ÉiºÉ®ú&). Here ºÉ¨´ÉiºÉ®ú& does not mean year (EòɱÉÉ& ºÉ¨´ÉiºÉ®Äúú ʸÉiÉÉ&), but has to be interpreted as time evolution of species as defined by iÉèÊkÉ®úÒªÉ ¥ÉÉÀhÉ 3/9/9: @ñiÉ´É& ºÉ¨´ÉiºÉ®ú& and ¶ÉiÉ{ÉlÉ ¥ÉÉÀhÉ 12/2/1: {ÉÖ¯û¹ÉÉä ´Éè ºÉ¨´ÉiºÉ®ú&. It is different for different species. Thus, comparison between two different cycles has to be proportionate. For example, galactic evolutionary cycles are different from solar cycles, because galaxy is like a bigger version of not the Sun, but the Solar system. Thus, the evolutionary cycles of galaxies have been wrongly calculated in modern science. According to Vedic science, evolutionary cycle of our galaxy repeats (perpetual inertia) every 8.64 billion years. The cycles for humans are variable because of differential inertia and are about 100 years. Hence when we compare the time evolution of the galaxy with human life-cycle, it is a huge dilation. The same principle applies to humans and other animals. This is true time dilation. The famous experiment for proving time dilation using six atomic clocks was manipulated as can be verified from original records still available in the US Naval Archives. The time dilation measured by GPS systems is due to refraction of light signals when light moves through different density media on Earth’s atmosphere and space.

When the 15 forces of +Ê´ÉtÉ confines the super-fluid ®úºÉ or ºÉÞ¹]õ¥ÉÀ, the resultant is known as VÉÒ´É (¶ÉHäò®úÊ´ÉtÉEòÉ®äúhÉ ºÉƤÉrÆù VÉҴɺÉÆÊYÉiɨÉÂ*). Such VÉÒ´É are of two types (VÉҴɺÉÆYÉÆ iÉÖ Ê´ÉYÉÉxÉÆ ÊuùvÉɱÉÉäEäò ´ªÉ´ÉκlÉiɨÉÂ): one dominated by confined matter and the other dominated by free-flowing energy (+lÉÇiÉÉä ¨ÉÖJªÉ¨ÉäEÆò iÉÖ YÉÉxɨÉxªÉiÉ |ÉiÉÒÊiÉiÉ&). Hence during perception, the relevant brain areas fire positrons (YÉÉxɨÉxªÉiÉ |ÉiÉÒÊiÉiÉ&), which are said to be anti-matter of electrons. Objects dominated by the confinement of forces require their distinctive space and are called material particles (baryons - +Ê´ÉtɤÉrùÊ´ÉYÉÉxɨÉlÉÇiÉÉä ¨ÉÖJªÉ¨ÉÖSªÉiÉä - iÉɨÉʺÉEò). The other, which does not require separate space, is called the non-baryonic subtle or cognitive body (ºlÉڱɺÉÚI¨É ¶É®úÒ®úɦªÉɨɴÉÎSUôzÉ |ÉiÉÒÊiÉiÉ&*). This second body, which has cognitive characteristics (ºÉÉÊkÉEò-®úÉVÉʺÉEò) communicates with other forms and when it is cognized by others, it is called a life form (º´É|ÉSÉÉ®úɸɪÉÆ ÊSÉkÉÆ VÉÒ´É°ü{É |ÉEòɶÉEò¨ÉÂ). These two types of bodies are also called as ´ªÉHò/+SÉ®ú and +´ªÉHò/SÉ®ú respectively (<ÎxpùªÉè& ºÉÞVªÉiÉä ªÉnÂù ªÉiÉ iÉiÉ iÉnÂù ´ªÉÊHòʨÉÊiÉ º¨ÉÞiɨÉÂ* iÉnù´ªÉHòʨÉÊiÉ YÉäªÉÆ Ê±ÉRÂóMÉOÉÉÁ¨ÉiÉÒÎxpùªÉ¨ÉÂ*). As long as they maintain a specific ratio (+xªÉÉäxªÉÆ xÉÉÊiÉ´ÉiÉÇxiÉä), the body retains its form. When the ratio is disturbed, then the existing form is destroyed and a new form is created (ªÉnùÉ iÉÖ Ê´É¹É¨ÉÆ ¦ÉɴɨÉÉSÉ®úÎxiÉ SÉ®úÉSÉ®úÉ&* iÉnùÉ näù½þÒ näù½þ¨ÉxªÉÆ ´ªÉÎiÉ®úÉä½þÊiÉ EòɱÉiÉ&*). This principle is universal for all bodies (including inert particles) and is the cause for time evolution of everything.

Some Physicist’s contest the above concept of time and interpret it as an emergent characteristic cognized by human mind only. For them, time is dependent upon motion of materials, which is measured by various measuring instruments. If there are no material bodies or no motion (time evolution), there should be no time. After the Copenhagen interpretation of Bohr, questions were raised as to: if there is no conscious observer, does the concept of time become redundant? In the absence of a conscious observer, are the existence of material bodies and their motion also become redundant? Others say that just as the behavior of materials indicates that they consist of atoms, the behavior of space and time suggests that they, too, have some fine-scale structure either a mosaic of space-time “atoms” or some other filigree work. Material atoms are the smallest indivisible units of chemical compounds; similarly, the putative space atoms are the smallest indivisible units of distance. They are generally thought to be about 10−35 meter in size, far too tiny to be seen by today’s most powerful instruments, which probe distances as short as 10−20 meter. Consequently, many scientists question whether the concept of atomic space-time can even be called scientific. This can be easily explained by the Vedic theory of space and time.

Both space (¨ÉiªÉÉÇEòɶÉ) and time (¨ÉÚiÉÇEòɱÉ) as also direction (ÊnùEÂò) arise out of our notions of sequence ({É®úi´ÉÉ{É®úi´É Gò¨É). Space and time are the intervals (+´ÉEòɶÉ) between ordered pairs (nearness-afar arrangement for objects and priority-posterity for events - {É®úi´ÉÉ{É®úi´É - from a reference point). If there is only one object or one event (as during |ɱɪÉ), space and time will not be perceptible, though they can still exist as +¨ÉÞiÉÉEòÉ¶É and +¨ÉÚiÉÇEòɱÉ. To be perceptible, they require at least another object or event. Hence time is described as ´ÉºiÉÖ{ÉÊiÉiÉ. Since the intervals are only mental constructs and cannot be perceived directly, we use alternative symbolism by describing space through sequential objects and time through sequential events (ºÉ Jɱ´ÉªÉÆ EòɱÉÉä ´ÉºiÉÖ¶ÉÚxªÉÉä ¤ÉÖÊrùÊxɨÉÉÇhÉ& ¶É´nùYÉÉxÉÉxÉÖ{ÉÉiÉÒ ±ÉÉèÊEòEòÉxÉÉÆ ´ªÉÖÎilÉiÉnù¶ÉÇxÉÉxÉÉÆ ´ÉºiÉÖº´É°ü{É <´É +´É¦ÉɺÉiÉä - ´ªÉɺɦÉɹªÉ on ªÉÉäMɺÉÚjÉ 3/52). For this purpose, we use a fairly repetitive and easily intelligible interval as the unit and compare the required interval with it to measure space and time. Regarding direction, which describes the sequential arrangements of objects with respect to fixed coordinates, we use fixed points like the point of Sun rise or the general direction of the Pole star and designate them as east and north respectively.

There are no similar objects like space or time. Hence they are one each. Yet, we cannot perceive their full dimension. Hence they are infinite. Since no mathematics is permissible between infinities, they co-exist (ºÉ½þɴɺlÉÉxÉ ºÉ¨¤ÉxvÉ) in a continuum – the so-called space-time-continuum. Since both are infinite, their relationship is also infinite (ʴɦÉÚÊiÉ ºÉ¨¤ÉxvÉ), which is a characteristic of |ÉÊ´ÉÊ´ÉHò¥ÉÀ or +´ªÉªÉ, which is the background structure. Hence space and time provide general background to everything in the Universe. Their relationship is also called ºÉƶɮú ¤ÉxvÉxÉ or loose coupling, which cannot create anything like normal coupling such as that of quarks and leptons. Since one of these is fixed, while the other is ever changing, we do not use the term space-time.

This raises a question: If space and time are infinite background structure – analog – how do we digitize and use it? The answer is what we call as time is the mutual similar perception of the same sequence and/or simultaneous sequences by all observers even if its interval varies (+{É®úκ¨ÉzÉ{É{É®Æú ªÉÖMÉ{ÉiÉ ÊSÉ®Æú ÊIÉ|ÉʨÉÊiÉ EòɱÉʱÉRÂóMÉÉÊxÉ* EòhÉÉnù-2/2/6). The minimum possible interval between objects could be that between two elementary particles (the so-called Planck scale). The interval between the motion of one elementary particle to totally leave its position and reach the next position is the minimum possible interval between events. This minimum possible event is called a moment (IÉhÉ). Such motions are taking part continuously, but are not perceptible because of the limitations of our sense organs (ÊxÉiªÉnùÉ ÁRÂóMÉ ¦ÉÚiÉÉÊxÉ ¦É´ÉÎxiÉ xÉ ¦É´ÉÎxiÉ SÉ* EòɱÉäxÉɱÉIÉ´ÉäMÉäxÉ ºÉÚI¨Éi´ÉÉkÉzÉ où¶ªÉiÉä*). Such changes are not random, but are continuing everywhere perpetually in a fixed sequence (Gò¨É - ¹ÉbÂ÷¦ÉÉ´ÉÊ´ÉEòÉ®úÉ&). This infinite sequence is time (ºÉ¨´ÉiºÉ®ú). Since we cannot measure the entire sequence, we use segments like the rotation or revolution of Earth and subdivide it into suitable segments for our use as unit. Thus, ´ªÉɺɦÉɹªÉ on ªÉÉäMɺÉÚjÉ 3/52 says, ªÉlÉÉ{ÉEò¹ÉÇ{ɪÉÇxiÉÆ pù´ªÉÆ {É®ú¨ÉÉhÉÖ®äú´ÉÆ {É®ú¨ÉÉ{ÉEò¹ÉÇ{ɪÉÇxiÉ& EòÉ±É IÉhÉ&* ªÉÉ´ÉiÉÉ ´ÉÉ ºÉ¨ÉªÉäxÉ SÉʱÉiÉ& {É®ú¨ÉÉhÉÖ& {ÉÚ¤ÉÇnäù¶ÉÆ VÉÁÉnÖùkÉ®únäù¶É¨ÉÖ{ɺɨ{ÉtäiÉ ºÉ EòɱÉ& IÉhÉ&* iÉi|É´ÉɽþÉÊ´ÉSUäônùºiÉÖ Gò¨É&* IÉhÉiÉiGò¨ÉªÉÉäxÉÉÇκiÉ ´ÉºiÉֺɨÉɽþÉ®ú <ÊiÉ ¤ÉÖÊrùºÉ¨ÉɽþÉ®úÉä ¨ÉÖ½ÚþkÉÉǽþÉä®úÉjÉÉnùªÉ&*. The same principle applies to space.

Since time is action suggestive (ÊGòªÉÉ´ªÉRÂóMÉ) and action is based on causality, we must discuss the Vedic principles of causality here briefly. There are 13 different types of cause-effect sequence: ½äþiÉÖÌxÉʨÉkÉÆ |ÉEÞòÊiɶSÉ ªÉÉäÊxÉ& |ÉÉ®ú´vɨÉÚ±Éä |ɦɴÉÉänÂù¦É´ÉÉè ªÉlÉÉ* Ê´É´ÉkÉǺÉÆSÉÉ®úÒ®úºÉ|É´ÉÉʽþEò|ÉEÞòiªÉ{ÉÚ´ÉÈ ºÉ¨É´ÉÉʪÉEòÉ ¨ÉiÉÉ*. Of these 4 types are related to physical features (º´É°ü{ɺɨ¤ÉxvÉ), another 4 types related to chemical or interactive properties ({ɪÉÉÇ{iÉ´ÉÞÊkÉi´É ºÉ¨¤ÉxvÉ) and the rest 5 types are their derivatives (+x´ÉɦÉÊHò´ÉÞÊkÉi´É ºÉ¨¤ÉxvÉ). We are not discussing the details here. The relationship between cause and effect can be inferred through observing their effect (action or time evolution). This happens to be described in six different ways (¹ÉbÂ÷ Ê´ÉEò±{É) leading to the ¹ÉbÂ÷¦ÉÉ´ÉÊ´ÉEòÉ®úÉ& discussed above. The first relationship is when the effect has not arisen, but the cause is known (EòɪÉÈ EòÉ®úhÉä or VÉɪÉiÉä). The second is its opposite (EòÉ®úhÉÆ EòɪÉæ or +κiÉ). The third is evolution of features different from that of the cause due to external interactions (EòɪÉÇ-EòÉ®úhÉä ʦÉzÉä or Ê´É{ÉÊ®úhɨÉiÉä). The fourth is growth of similarities of the cause in effect (EòÉ®úhɨÉä´É EòɪÉÈ or ´ÉrÇùiÉä). The fifth is the opposite of the third (EòɪÉÈEòÉ®úhÉÉnùʦÉzÉÆ, EòÉ®úhÉÆ iÉÖ EòɪÉÉÇnÂù ʦÉzɨÉ or +{ÉIÉÒªÉiÉä). The sixth is the end of the evolutionary sequence (EòÉ®úhÉäEòɪÉǨÉvªÉºiɨÉ or Ê´ÉxɶªÉÊiÉ). Of these the first two relationships are called +ÉäiÉ|ÉÉäiɦÉÉ´É ºÉ¨¤ÉxvÉ, the third is the ¦Éänù ºÉ¨¤ÉxvÉ, the fourth is the +¦Éän ºÉ¨¤ÉxvÉù, the fifth is the ¦ÉänùɦÉänù ºÉ¨¤ÉxvÉ, and the sixth is called +ÊxÉ´ÉÇSÉxÉÒªÉ ºÉ¨¤ÉxvÉ. These features are common to everything from quarks to the Universe, from inert to life forms.

The inertia of motion (´ÉäMÉ) induced by +ÎMxÉ&, is counterbalanced by the inertia of restoration (elasticity - κlÉÊiɺlÉÉ{ÉEò ºÉƺEòÉ®ú) of the surrounding field induced by ºÉÉä¨É. After a certain stage, the inertia of restoration (not dark energy, as is generally believed) takes over and the Universe dissolves to the primordial stage through decomposition. But it is not total and there is an inherent instability (ºÉƺEòÉ®¶Éä¹É), induced by {É®ú¨ÉʶɴÉ.

According to ®úixÉjɪÉ{ÉÊ®úIÉÉ, “Eäò´É±É ÊxÉVɺ´É°ü{ÉähÉ +´ÉκlÉiɺªÉ ªÉnùÉ ´É½ÖþºªÉÉÆ |ÉVÉɪÉäªÉ <ÊiÉ ºÉÉ {ÉÚ´ÉÉæÊnùiÉÉ ÊºÉºÉÞIÉÉ |É{É\SÉ´ÉɺÉxÉÉ°ü{ÉÉ ¶ÉÊHò®úÒÊiÉ ÊuùiÉÒªÉÆÆ iÉk´É¨ÉÂ*. The question is why does IT divide ITself as +´ªÉªÉ-+IÉ®ú-IÉ®ú through inherent instability (ºÉƺEòÉ®¶Éä¹É)? The answer, according to ·ÉäiÉÉ·ÉäiÉ®ú ={ÉÊxɹÉnù 6/1, is, º´É¦ÉɴɨÉäEäò Eò´ÉªÉÉä ´ÉnùÎxiÉ EòɱÉÆ iÉlÉÉxªÉä {ÉÊ®ú¨ÉÖÁ¨ÉÉxÉÉ&* näù´ÉºªÉä¹É ¨Éʽþ¨ÉÉ iÉÖ ±ÉÉäEäò ªÉäxÉänÆù §ÉɨªÉiÉä ¥ÉÀSÉGò¨ÉÂ*. It is Its nature, otherwise there can be no creation.

According to ʴɹhÉÖºÉÆʽþiÉÉ, this ʺɺÉÞIÉÉ or that automatically comes into existence (like the shadow automatically appears the moment a seed germinates), leads to release of energy (¶ÉÊHò) creating various divisions (¤É±É´ªÉÖ½) in the confined dimensionality created by ¨ÉɪÉÉ. Thus:
%´ªÉªÉ&* YÉÉxÉ{ÉÚ´ÉÈ |É´ÉiÉæiÉ ÊGòªÉÉ EòiÉÉÇ iÉiÉ& {ÉÖxÉ&*
YÉÉxÉÉvÉÉ®úÉ ÊGòªÉÉ YÉäªÉÉ xÉ SÉèEòÉ ºÉ¨|É´ÉiÉÇiÉä* ÊGòªÉÉYÉÉxÉ |ɦÉänäùxÉ ¶ÉÊHò®äúEòÉ {É®úºªÉ xÉÖ&*
ÊuùvÉÉ ´ªÉÉ{ªÉ VÉMÉiEÞòiºxÉÆ SÉ®úÉSÉ®ú¨É´ÉκlÉiÉÉ* ¶ÉÊHò¶ÉÊHò¨ÉiÉÉäªÉǺ¨ÉÉzÉ ¦ÉänùÉäκiÉ {É®úº{É®ú¨ÉÂ*
+ʦÉzÉ iÉäxÉ ¤ÉÉärù´ªÉÆ ÊGòªÉÉYÉÉxÉuùªÉÆ ¤ÉÖvÉè&* BEò B´É ÊjÉvÉÉ°ü{ÉÉä ¦ÉänäùxÉÉxÉäxÉ ºÉÆκlÉiÉ&* ÊGòªÉÉ YÉÉxÉÆ iÉlÉèSUôÉ SÉ ÊjÉiɪÉÆ SÉèEò¨Éä´É ʽþ*

Some may question it as earlier we had talked about YÉÉxÉ-¤É±É-ÊGòªÉÉ, but now we are talking about . But the above text explains it fully. We have desire only when we have the knowledge of some deficiency and the mechanism to fulfill the desire. Then we use force (effort) to materialize that desire. This is the same as the sequence YÉÉxÉ-¤É±É-ÊGòªÉÉ. Also: YÉÉxÉVÉxªÉ ¦É´ÉäÊnùSUôÉ .

Once the inertia of motion (´ÉäMÉ) weakens due to the inertia of restoration (elasticity - κlÉÊiɺlÉÉ{ÉEò ºÉƺEòÉ®ú), the later starts dominating and the Universe dissolves into the elementary particles again (the galaxies do not come closer, but stay at their own position). This creates a backlash after it reaches almost uniform density. Then the reverse process starts with inertia of motion (´ÉäMÉ) dominating and spreads out quickly. The process of counterbalancing of generated stress and impedance is known as º{Éxnù (for details please see º{ÉxnùEòÉÊ®úEòÉ) or |ÉEòɶÉ-ʴɨɶÉÇ. This is the Big Bang. It spreads in the unfathomable expanse of uniform density (ºÉ¨É®úºÉ). When the motion moves over inert background, it slows down due the bow-shock effect that is seen when a boat is pushed in still waters of a lake. After certain distance, the inertia of restoration (elasticity - κlÉÊiɺlÉÉ{ÉEò ºÉƺEòÉ®ú) overtakes fully and the expansion is halted. From that point, the force bounces back creating internal disturbances that generate other forces described below. The point of such return is called xÉèʨɹÉÉ®úhªÉ - xÉèÊ¨É¹É because the xÉä欃 of vɨÉÇSÉGò gets exhausted xÉÒʹÉhÉÇ there and +®úhªÉ because it is one only (a collection is called OÉÉ¨É and its opposite is +®úhªÉ). Because it is the biggest structure in the Universe, it is called ¥ÉÀÉ (¤ÉÞ½þk´ÉÉiÉ ´ÉÞƽþhÉk´ÉÉSSÉ). Hence ¥ÉÀÉ näù´ÉÉxÉÉÆ |ÉlÉ¨É ºÉƤɦÉÖ´É Ê´É·ÉºªÉ EòiÉÉÇ ¦ÉÖ´ÉxɺªÉ MÉÉä{iÉÉ*.

MÉÉä{ÉlÉ¥ÉÉÀhɨÉ describes the 15 ¤É±É´ªÉÖ½þ starting with ¨ÉɪÉÉ, vÉÉ®úÉ, VÉɪÉÉ, +É{É&, etc. One ÊxÉ̴ɶÉä¹É {É®úÉi{É®ú evolves into +´ªÉªÉ (Eò¨ÉÉÇÊhÉ Ê´ÉYÉÉxɨɪɶSÉ +Éi¨ÉÉ {É®äú%´ªÉªÉä ºÉ´ÉÇ BEòҦɴÉÎxiÉ - ¨ÉÖhb÷Eò 3-2-7), +IÉ®ú (BiÉnÂùvªÉä´ÉÉIÉ®Æú ¥ÉÀ BiÉnÂùvªÉä´ÉÉIÉ®Æú {É®ú¨É - Eò`ö 1-2-16) and IÉ®ú (¥ÉÀÉIÉ®úºÉ¨ÉÖnÂù¦É´É¨É - MÉÒiÉÉ 3-15). All of these three have five divisions ({É\SÉEò±É) each. Among these, +´ªÉªÉ is +EÖò´ÉÉÇhÉ – immutable, +IÉ®ú is EÖò´ÉÉÇhÉ - energetical and IÉ®ú is +Ê´ÉEÖò´ÉÉÇhÉ – mutable. Thus, the first ¤É±É´ªÉÖ½þ - ¨ÉɪÉÉ - also evolves into three groups of five divisions each showing these characteristics. These are as follows:

·        5 nù¶ÉÉIÉ®úÉ ¤ÉÞ½þiÉÒUôxnùÉʸÉiÉ ºÉƪÉÉäMÉ|É´ÉkÉÇEò κlÉ®úvɨÉÇ |ɪÉÉäVÉEò ¤É±É - ¨ÉɪÉÉ, vÉÉ®úÉ, VÉɪÉÉ, +É{É&, ¾þnùªÉ¨ÉÂ*
·        5 +¹]õÉIÉ®úÉ +xÉÖ¹]Öõ{É UôxnùÉʸÉiÉ Ê¤É¦ÉÉMÉ|É´ÉkÉÇEò +κlÉ®úvɨÉÇ |ɪÉÉäVÉEò ¤É±É - ¦ÉÚÊiÉ&, ªÉYÉ&, ºÉÚjɨÉÂ, ºÉiªÉ¨ÉÂ, ªÉIɨÉÂ*
·        5 ÊjÉ{ÉnùÉ MÉɪÉjÉÒUôxnùÉʸÉiÉ ºÉƺEòÉ®ú|É´ÉkÉÇEò ºÉ´ªÉ{ÉäIÉvɨÉÇ |ɪÉÉäVÉEò ¤É±É - +¦´ÉÆ, ¨ÉÉä½þ&, ´ÉªÉ&, ´ÉªÉÉäxÉÉvÉ&, ´ÉªÉÖxɨÉÂ*

Each of these terms are technical terms and should be defined precisely. For example, ¾þnùªÉ¨É is not to be confused with heart, but interpreted as defined in ¶ÉiÉ{ÉlÉ¥ÉÉÀhɨÉ 14/8/4/1 – “B¹É |ÉVÉ{ÉÊiɪÉÇnù ¾þnùªÉ¨ÉÂ* BiÉiÉ ¥ÉÀ* BiÉiÉ ºÉ´ÉǨÉÂ* ….. iÉnäùiÉiÉ jªÉIÉ®Æú ¾þnùªÉ¨É <ÊiÉ* ¾þ ”. +IÉ®ú is related to the functionality of ¾þnùªÉ¨ÉÂ*. The +xiɪÉÉǨÉÒ +IÉ®ú functions from the confines of ¾þnùªÉ¨ÉÂ*. This is described in @ñM´Éänù 6/69/8 - . BäiÉ®äúªÉ ¥ÉÉÀhɨÉ 6/15 and ¶ÉiÉ{ÉlÉ¥ÉÉÀhɨÉÂ, discuss about these in detail. Here +ɽþkÉÉÇ Ê´É¹hÉÖ is represented by ¾þ, Ê´ÉIÉä{ÉhÉvɨÉÉÇ is represented by (nùÉä +´ÉJÉhb÷xÉä) and ÊxɪɨÉxÉEòkÉÉÇ ¥ÉÀÉ is represented by ªÉ¨É (ªÉ¨ÉÉä ´Éè +´ÉºÉÉxɺªÉä¹]äõ). Thus, the term ¾þnùªÉ¨É is a ºÉÉRÂóEäòÊiÉEò that describes the fundamental mechanism of all physical interactions. This principle can be observed universally from quark confinement and electron orbits to Pioneer Anomaly and ultimate boundary of the Universe. Whatever is seen from within the system is different from whatever is seen from outside the system. Hence it is said: {É®úÉäIÉÊ|ɪÉÉ <´É ʽþ näù´ÉÉ& |ÉiªÉIÉùÊuù¹É&*. For this reason ¨ÉɪÉÉ also means illusion. But the opposite is not true.

In Ayurveda, the controlling energy for the circulatory systems (SÉɱÉxÉÉÆ¶É vÉÉ®úhÉ) is called ´ªÉÉxÉ´ÉɪÉÖ. Since it functions from the heart, the heart is also called ¾þnùªÉ¨É (´ªÉÉxÉÉä ¾þÊnù κlÉiÉ& EÞòiºxÉnäù½þSÉÉ®úÒ ¨É½þÉVÉ´É&* MÉiªÉ{ÉIÉä{ÉhÉÉäiIÉä{ÉÊxɨÉä¹ÉÉäx¨Éä¹ÉhÉÉÊnùEòÉ&* |ÉɪÉ& ºÉ´ÉÉÇ& ÊGòªÉɺiÉκ¨ÉxÉ |ÉÊiÉ´ÉrùÉ& ¶É®úÒÊ®úhÉɨÉÂ*). ¾þnùªÉ¨É is a characteristic of all confined objects. Confinement depends on the functions of ¨ÉɪÉÉ that determines the dimensionality, as dimension is the perception of differentiation between the internal structural space and external relational space (ʴɦÉänù¤ÉÖÊrùÌxÉVÉÉƶɦÉÚiÉä¹ÉÖ ÊxÉÊJɱɦÉÚiÉä¹ÉÖ). To explain how the different forces operate to create ¾þnùªÉ¨ÉÂ, let us take the example of our body. How do the different cells in the body stay together? A force is needed for a cell to be attached to a given surface and pull its way through the body and to withstand against the strains of gravity, blood flow or physical movements, etc. The machinery that cells use to generate such force is a sophisticated mix of “cables”, made of a protein called “actin”, which crisscross and link into a kind of sturdy mesh, dotted with a second protein, called “myosin”, which act as molecular “motors”. Myosin grabs onto actin and pulls hard. That force spreads across the interconnected mesh and out into the surrounding world, letting cells grasp the area around them.

Within the confinement of ¾þnùªÉ¨ÉÂ, the internal dynamics of VÉɪÉÉ, vÉÉ®úÉ, +É{É& continues. Once confined by ¨ÉɪÉÉ, the system evolves by vÉÉ®úÉ, VÉɪÉÉ, +É{É& to become ¾þnùªÉ¨É as described in MÉÉä{ÉlÉ¥ÉÉÀhɨÉÂ. Here vÉÉ®úÉ means |É´ÉɽþEòÉÊ®úhÉÒ vÉÉ®úÉ ºÉxiÉÉxɪÉÊiÉ MÉSUôiÉ&* MÉÊiÉ-κlÉiªÉÉä& ºÉ¨ÉÆ ªÉÉäMÉÆ ªÉÉ |ɪÉÉäVɪÉiÉä%nÂù¦ÉÚiɨÉÂ*. Further, VÉɪÉÉ means VÉx¨É|ÉnùÉʪÉxÉÒ VÉɪÉÉ ºÉkÉÉÎx´ÉiɤɱÉä ¤É±É¨ÉÂ* ÊxÉSÉɪªÉ vÉkÉä ºÉkÉɪÉÉÆ EÞòi´ÉÉ ºÉkÉÉ |ÉnùÉiÉ {ÉÞlÉEÂò*. And +É{É& means @ñiɨÉÉ{ÉÉä¤É±ÉÉiÉ ʺÉrÆù ºÉiªÉÆ ¾þnùªÉiÉÉä ¤É±ÉÉiÉÂ* ÊuùvÉè´ÉänÆù VÉMÉiÉ ºÉ´ÉÇ @ñiÉÆ ´ÉÉ ºÉiªÉ¨Éä´É ´ÉÉ*. Here the words @ñiÉÆ and ºÉiªÉ¨É (ºÉiÉ + ÊiÉ + ªÉ¨ÉÂ. D  ºÉiªÉ¨É - ºÉkÉɸɪÉÆ ºÉÊiÉ ¦É´É¨É ºÉiªÉ¨ÉÂ) should be defined as in ¶ÉiÉ{ÉlÉ¥ÉÉÀhɨÉ 14/8/6/2 and UôÉxnùÉäMªÉ ={ÉÊxɹÉnÂù - ¦ÉÉÊiÉʺÉrù +¾þnùªÉ +¶É®úÒ®úÒ @ñiɨÉ (boson in modern physics) and κlÉÊiÉʺÉrù ºÉ¾þnùªÉ ºÉ¶É®úÒ®úÒ ºÉiªÉ¨É (fermion). The three forces vÉÉ®úÉ, VÉɪÉÉ, +É{É& can be compared to the cohesive force known as van der Waals forces in modern physics. Such forces are known for quite sometime and are thought to be caused by the attraction of polar molecules, which have slightly different charges on different sides of the molecule. For example, water molecules exhibit surface tension because of van der Waals forces, because the negative charge of one water molecule’s oxygen atom is attracted to nearby water molecules’ hydrogen atoms, which have a positive charge at their surfaces. The recent discovery about a kilometer-sized asteroid (29075) 1950 DA published in the scientific Magazine Nature (DOI:10.1038/nature. 2014.15713), which has baffled scientists, is its macro manifestation.

Similarly, the movement in the primordial +¨¦É& by ¨ÉɪÉÉ, creates “paths” like “cables” due to bow shock effect, which is called vÉÉ®úÉ changing +¨¦É& into ¨É®úÒSÉÒ&. This generates differential pressure in the same medium that interact with each other (VÉɪÉÉ&). In modification of Coulomb’s law, Vedic science holds that generally “ºÉɨÉÉxªÉ¨ÉäEòi´ÉEò®Æú ʴɶÉä¹ÉºiÉÖ {ÉÞlÉCi´ÉEÞòiÉÂ*” meaning thereby equals attract each other. However, @ñM´Éänù 5/44/15 (+ÎMxÉVÉÉÇMÉÉ®ú iɨÉÞSÉ& EòɨɪÉxiÉä%ÎMxÉVÉÉÇMÉÉ®ú iɨÉÖ ºÉɨÉÉÊxÉ ªÉÎxiÉ) says that while this principle is applicable to stable particles with a nucleus surrounded by electron orbits, in the quantum world, the deficient negative charge is attracted towards the positive charge (+ÎMxÉVÉÉÇMÉÉ®ú iɨɪÉÆ ºÉÉä¨É +ɽþ iÉ´Éɽþ¨Éκ¨É ºÉJªÉä xªÉÉäEòÉ&).

It is well known that Coulomb’s law equation cannot explain charge interaction between a charged object and a charge neutral object. In Vedic theory, all particles are ʨÉlÉÖxɨÉ – “+ÎMxɹÉÉä¨ÉÉi¨ÉEò”, i.e., a combination of opposite charges (like up and down quarks in protons and neutrons). This is known as iÉxiÉÖÊ´ÉiÉÉxÉ Ê´ÉtÉ (+lÉ´ÉÇ´Éänù 14/2/71). The +´ªÉªÉ-+IÉ®ú-IÉ®ú exhibit non-interactive, partially interactive, and fully interactive (+ºÉRÂóMÉ, ºÉRÂóMÉɺÉRÂóMÉ, ºÉºÉRÂóMÉ) characteristics respectively. Their mutual interactions create ʴɦÉÚÊiÉ, ªÉÉäMÉ, ªÉÉMÉ ºÉ¨¤ÉxvÉ respectively. The first is known as ºÉƶɮú ¤ÉxvÉxÉ or loose coupling, which cannot create anything. One example is space-time. The interaction between forces is called ªÉÉäMÉ or ´ÉʽþªÉÉÇ¨É ºÉ¨¤ÉxvÉ, which can be compared to weak interaction or the van der Waals forces. They cannot create anything, but are instrumental in creation. But only when the forces become charged, their interaction is called ªÉÉMÉ or +xiÉþªÉÉÇ¨É ºÉ¨¤ÉxvÉ, which can be compared to strong nuclear interaction. This is also known as ªÉÉäMɦÉÉ´ÉÉxÉÖ´ÉxvÉÒ ¦ÉÚiɺɨ¤ÉxvÉ. Only this is capable of creation. If both charges are equal, holding on to each other (+ÉvÉÉ®úÉvÉäªÉ ¦ÉÉ´É) is not possible. They only accumulate without creating new particles, as was in the first few moments of creation. If one of the charges is more than the other, the particle is called to have that charge (ions). Only ions can interact. Even then the interaction can be partial or total. If the interaction is partial between opposite charges, it creates a new particle (ºÉÞι]õEò®ú). If it is total, it only increases in mass - becomes an isotope ({ÉÖι]õEò®ú). If two negative charges interact, it leads to null effect (ÊxÉ®úlÉÇEò). But if two positive charges interact, it explodes (ʴɹ¡òÉä]õEò).

The positive/negative charge component (not magnitude) of proton being 2:1 (as described in BäiÉ®äúªÉ ¥ÉÉÀhɨÉ 12/12/23), the smaller negative charge component of neutron (-1/11 in Vedic theory) is attracted towards the dominant positive charge of proton (+10/11), pulling the electron (-1) in the process.  Thus, the proton becomes slightly negatively charged (-1/11) to become the neutron and vice versa holding the atom together. Thus, protons with its net positive charge (+10/11) or neutrons with a little net negative charge (-1/11) can interact with each other without requiring any binding energy. This is the principle described in @ñM´Éänù 1/164/16: in Nature, everything has a slight net negative charge (ºjÉÒªÉ& ºÉiÉÒºiÉÉÄ = ¨Éä {ÉÖÆºÉ +ɽÖþ&), but being directed inwards, it is not perceived even in measurement. The mutual interaction is possible only in a super-fluid (+É{É&) to create fermions (¾þnùªÉ¨ÉÂ).

The other terms should be interpreted as follows:
Ê´ÉkÉÆ {ɶÉÖ& |ÉVÉÉ MÉÉjÉÆ ´ÉänùÉ& BʦÉ̽þ {É\SÉʨÉ&* +ʦɴÉÞÊrù¦ÉÚÊiÉ ¤É±ÉÉiÉ MÉÉjÉ´ÉÞÊrùpÖÇù¨ÉÉRÂóEÖò®ú&*
¦ÉÉäHòÉ®ú¨ÉÊ¦É ¦ÉÉäMªÉÉlÉÉæ{ɺÉÊkɪÉÇYɨÉÚʱÉEòÉ* κlÉ®äú ¦ÉÉäMªÉä iÉÖ ªÉÉ ¦ÉÉäHÖò®úÉGòÉÎxiÉ& ºÉÚjɨÉκiÉ iÉiÉÂ*
´ÉÉSÉ& |ÉÉhɺªÉ ¨ÉxɺÉÉä xÉÉΨxÉ °ü{Éä SÉ Eò¨ÉÇÊhÉ* +ʦɪÉÉäMÉÉä%κiÉ iÉiÉ ºÉiªÉÆ ªÉIÉÆ °ü{ÉÉÊnù ¦ÉHòªÉ&*
¤É±ÉÉxÉɨɺÉiÉɨÉä¹ÉÉÆ ¨ÉÞiªÉÖxÉɨɨÉÞiÉä ®úºÉä* +{ÉÞlÉEòi´É¨É¦ÉänùÉä ªÉºiÉnù¦´É ¤É±Énù¶ÉÇxɨÉÂ*
+¦ÉÉ´ÉÉä ¦ÉÉ´É´ÉnÂù ¦ÉÉÊiÉ Ê¨ÉlªÉÉlÉæ ºÉiªÉiÉÉOɽþ&* ºÉÉä%vªÉɺÉÉä ¨ÉÉä½þ BEòi´ÉÆ ªÉnùiªÉxiÉʴɯûrùªÉÉä&*
YÉÉxÉä ʴɹɪɺÉƺÉMÉÉæ ʴɹɪÉÉEòÉÊ®úiÉÉÊvɪÉ&* ´ÉªÉÖxÉÆ Ê´É¹ÉªÉÉhÉÉÆ ´ÉÉ ÊvɪÉÉ iªÉÉMÉ{ÉÊ®úOɽþÉè*
pù´ªÉÉÊhÉ MÉÖ¯ûEò¨ÉÉÇÊhÉ ¨ÉÉjÉÉ´ÉÎxiÉ Ê´É¦ÉÉÎxiÉ xÉ&* iÉuùªÉÉä ªÉɶSÉ iÉx¨ÉÉjÉÉ& ºÉ ´ÉªÉÉäxÉÉvÉ <¹ªÉiÉä* +Ê´Étè¹ÉÉ {É\SÉnù¶ÉÒ Ê´ÉtÉ iÉiÉ |ÉÊiÉ´ÉxvÉxÉÉ*

The three types of ¤É±É´ªÉÖ½þ described above evolve differently based on Uôxnù - the primary units of the primordial force contained in them (|ÉÉhɨÉÉjÉÉ Uôxnù). The 5 nù¶ÉÉIÉ®úÉ ¤ÉÞ½þiÉÒUôxnùÉʸÉiÉ ºÉƪÉÉäMÉ|É´ÉkÉÇEò κlÉ®úvɨÉÇ |ɪÉÉäVÉEò ¤É±É evolve into 10 types called: ¦ÉÉ®ú, +ɪÉiÉxÉÆ, ºlÉÉxÉÊ´É®úÉävÉ, ʴɦÉÉVªÉiÉÉ, ºÉÉxiÉ®úi´ÉÆ, ºÉRÂóMÉ`öxÉÆ, κlÉÊiɺlÉÉ{ÉEòiÉÉ, SÉÉ{ÉxÉÆ, VÉb÷i´ÉÆ, +Ê´ÉxÉ·É®úi´É¨ÉÂ*. The 5 +¹]õÉIÉ®úÉ +xÉÖ¹]Öõ{É UôxnùÉʸÉiÉ Ê¤É¦ÉÉMÉ|É´ÉkÉÇEò +κlÉ®úvɨÉÇ |ɪÉÉäVÉEò ¤É±É evolve into 8 types called: ¶ÉèiªÉ¨ÉÂ, +ÉEÖò\SÉxÉÆ, EòÊ`öxÉi´ÉÆ, ´ÉhÉÇ°ü{ÉÆ, IÉhɦÉRÂóMÉÖ®úi´ÉÆ, PÉxÉi´ÉÆ, pù´Éi´ÉÆ, Ê´É®ú±Éi´É¨ÉÂ*. The 5 ÊjÉ{ÉnùÉ MÉɪÉjÉÒUôxnùÉʸÉiÉ ºÉƺEòÉ®ú|É´ÉkÉÇEò ºÉ´ªÉ{ÉäIÉvɨÉÇ |ɪÉÉäVÉEò ¤É±É evolve into 3 types called: xÉÉänùxÉɤɱÉÆ, EäòxpùÉ{ÉMɤɱɨÉÂ, +ÉEò¹ÉÇhɤɱɨÉÂ*. Each of these has various sub-divisions. For example: xÉÉänùxÉÉ¤É±É evolves into {ÉÚ´ÉÇnäù¶ÉiªÉÉMÉ-=kÉ®únäù¶ÉºÉƪÉÉäMÉÉi¨ÉEò MÉÊiÉ ¤É±ÉÆ, ¤É±ÉªÉÉäÊxÉ-¤É±É¨ÉÉjÉÉxÉÖ´ÉxvÉÒ ¤É±ÉÉä{ÉÊxɹÉnÂù ¤É±ÉÆ, ºÉ¨É-ʴɹɨÉ-´ÉäMɦÉÉ´ÉÉxÉÖ´ÉxvÉÒ ºÉ¨ÉÊnùMÉ ¤É±ÉÆ, ºÉ®ú±É-´ÉGòÉÊnù¦ÉÉ´ÉÉxÉÖ´ÉxvÉÒ xÉÉxÉÉÊnùMÉ ¤É±ÉÆ, |ÉÊiÉÊnùMÉ ¤É±ÉuùªÉPÉÉiÉÉÎi¨ÉEòÉ ÎºlÉÊiÉ-xÉÉxÉɤɱÉPÉÉiÉ {ÉÊ®ú´ÉÞÊkÉ-+ÉÊnù ÊxÉ´ÉxvÉxÉ |ÉÊiÉÊnùMÉ ¤É±É¨É etc. Similarly, +ÉEò¹ÉÇhɤɱɨÉ evolves into ´Éºi´ÉÉEò¹ÉÇhÉ, ´ªÉ´ÉEòʱÉiÉÉEò¹ÉÇhÉ, ¨ÉÉvªÉÉEò¹ÉÇhÉ, +ÉhÉÊ´ÉEòªÉÉäMÉÉEò¹ÉÇhÉ, ºÉÊzÉEò¹ÉǴɱÉÉEò¹ÉÇhÉ, +xÉÖ±ÉMxÉiÉɴɱÉÉEò¹ÉÇhÉ, ºÉƺÉHò´É±ÉÉEò¹ÉÇhÉ, EèòʶÉEò´É±ÉÉEò¹ÉÇhÉ, ¶ÉÉä¹ÉhɴɱÉÉEò¹ÉÇhÉ, SÉÉä¹ÉhɴɱÉÉEò¹ÉÇhÉ, etc. Because of these forces, the penta-divided Nature ({É\SÉ{É´ÉÉÇ |ÉEÞòÊiÉ) evolves into VÉªÉ or 18 interactions. These are: |É´ÉkÉÇEò ºÉ¨´ÉxvÉ, xÉèʨÉÊkÉEò ºÉ¨´ÉxvÉ, ºÉÉRÂóPÉÉÊiÉEò ºÉ¨´ÉxvÉ, ºÉÉƺEòÉÊ®úEò ºÉ¨´ÉxvÉ, =nÂù¦É´É ºÉ¨´ÉxvÉ, |É¦É´É ºÉ¨´ÉxvÉ, +Éè{É{ÉÉÊnùEò ºÉ¨´ÉxvÉ, |ÉÉEÞòÊiÉEò ºÉ¨´ÉxvÉ, {ÉÉÊ®ú¨ÉÉÊhÉEò ºÉ¨´ÉxvÉ, ®úºÉÉxÉÖ´ÉÞÊkÉEò ºÉ¨´ÉxvÉ, ºÉƪÉÖÊHòEò ºÉ¨É´ÉɪÉÒ ºÉ¨´ÉxvÉ, +Éè{ÉÉnùÉÊxÉEò ºÉ¨´ÉxvÉ, ºÉÉRÂóGòÉʨÉEò ºÉ¨´ÉxvÉ, +ÉGòÉʨÉEò ºÉ¨´ÉxvÉ, ºÉ\SÉÉ®úÒ ºÉ¨´ÉxvÉ, |ÉÉÊiɦÉÉʹÉEò Ê´É´ÉkÉÇ ºÉ¨´ÉxvÉ, ¦ÉÉÊ´ÉEò ºÉ¨´ÉxvÉ, ´ÉèEòα{ÉEò <ÎSUôEò ºÉ¨´ÉxvÉ. There are several variations of these; such as: +xiɪÉÉǨÉ, ´ÉʽþªÉÉǨÉ, ={ɪÉɨÉ, ªÉÉiɪÉɨÉ, =tɨÉ, =nÚùfø, ºÉƶɮú, OÉÎxlÉ, +ʨÉiÉ´ÉÞÊkÉiÉÉ, nù½þ®úÉäkÉ®ú, ´ÉºÉÖvÉÉxÉEòÉä¶É, ªÉÉäMÉ, ªÉÉMÉ, +ÉäiÉ|ÉÉäiÉ, etc.

¨ÉɪÉÉ implies {ÉÖ®ú¦ÉÉ´É. {ÉÖ®ú¦ÉÉ´É implies ºÉÒ¨ÉɦÉÉ´É. ºÉÒ¨ÉɦÉÉ´É implies ¾þnùªÉ¨ÉÂ. Since the Universe resembling ¾þnùªÉ¨É is established by ¨ÉɪÉÉ, it has been said that ¾þi|ÉÊiɹ`Æö ªÉnùÊVÉ®ÆúVÉʴɹ`Æö iÉx¨Éä¨ÉxÉ& ʶɴɺÉRÂóEò±{ɨɺiÉÖ. The ±ÉÉäEòºÉɽþ»ÉÒ of ʴɹhÉÖ generates +¶ÉxÉɪÉÉ ´ÉÞÊkÉ, which in turn generates +zÉ´ÉÞÊkÉ - +ÉvÉÉ®úÉvÉäªÉ ¦ÉÉ´É. This in turn creates everything through relative coupling. Thus, it has been said that “VÉx¨ÉxÉɶÉÉʦɦÉÚiÉɶSÉ iÉÉ®úiɨªÉäxÉ ºÉÆκlÉiÉÉ&* º{ÉrÇùªÉÉä{ɽþiÉÉ ÊxÉiªÉÆ {É®úiÉxjɶSÉ ºÉ´ÉÇnùÉ*”. Here we must clarify that Absolute Perception (YÉ º´É°ü{É ÊSÉuÞùÊkÉ) – the unlimited “I know” part of any perception, is different from knowledge proper (VÉÉxÉxɺ´É°ü{É ¤ÉÖÊrù´ÉÞÊkÉ), which is information about any limited subject or object. In the statement “{ɶªÉänùÉi¨ÉxɨÉÉi¨ÉÊxÉ”, one “+Éi¨ÉÉ” is “¤ÉÖÊrù” and the other “+Éi¨ÉÉ” is “{ÉÖ¯û¹É”. Thus, knowledge is always relatively true. Because all material particles (¦ÉÚiÉ) have five aspects – ºlÉÚ±É, º´É°ü{É, ºÉÚI¨É, +x´ÉªÉ and +lÉÇ´Ék´É. Of these, the physical and chemical characteristics are ºlÉÚ±É. The general characteristics of a group ({ÉÞÊlÉ´ªÉÉÆ EòÉÊ`öxªÉ, +{ºÉÖ ºxÉä½þ, iÉäVÉºÉ =¹hÉiÉÉ, ´ÉɪÉÉä& |ÉhÉÉʨÉiÉÉ - ÊxɪÉiÉ ºÉ\SÉ®úhɶÉÒ±ÉiÉÉ) are its º´É°ü{É (BEòVÉÉÊiÉ ºÉ¨ÉÎx´ÉiÉÉxÉɨÉä¹ÉÉÆ vɨÉǨÉÉjÉ ´ªÉÉ´ÉÞÊkÉ&). ºÉÚI¨É means non-divisible (+xÉÖkÉ®úʴɦÉÉMÉEò¨ÉÂ). Thus, the elementary particles only (¦ÉÚiÉEòÉ®úhÉ iÉx¨ÉÉjÉÉ) are ºÉÚI¨É aspect of all objects, because ¦ÉÚiÉ is so called as they are associated with large numbers - ¦ÉÚ¨ÉÉ.

Based on perception, objects have been divided into two categories: directly perceptible - ¦ÉÉ´É |ÉiªÉªÉ and indirectly inferred - ={ÉÉªÉ |ÉiªÉªÉ. The later are also of two types: näù´ÉÉ& and |ÉEÞòÊiɱɪÉÉ&. The näù´ÉÉ& are multi-quark structures. The @ñ¹ÉªÉ& are less than three confined quark structures – mesons (@ñ¹ÉªÉººÉ{iÉÉÊjɶSÉ ªÉiÉÂ* ºÉ´Éæ%jɪÉÉä +MɺiªÉ¶SÉ - iÉèÊkÉ®úÒªÉ +É®úhªÉEò¨É 1/11 - +MɺiªÉ EÖò¨¦ÉVÉÉiÉ -confined). These are of seven categories. The iÉx¨ÉÉjÉÉ are individual confined quarks that are not seen in free state - |ÉEÞòÊiɱɪÉÉ&, as we can not only know their internal structure (+´ÉªÉ´É¦ÉänùYÉÉxÉ xÉÉκiÉ), but also not know their position, as position (´ÉÉÁɴɪɴÉ) can only be known if they exist in free state. Thus, they are only known through their effect or motion in time - as the proton turns into neutron or vice versa or the neutrinos and antineutrinos that mediate it, etc. No such perception is possible for consciousness. All particles are perceived through their mass-energy-interaction (|ÉEòɶÉ-EòɪÉÇ-vÉɪÉÇ). Since these three exist in everything in a specific proportion, that harmonic proportion is called +x´ÉªÉ. The last aspect of all particles is its utility - +lÉÇ´Ék´É, as everything has a specific use. We perceive some or all of these aspects only – not totality, which is indescribable (due to MÉÖhɺÉɨªÉ). This explains the essential part of the Brahmasootra. The other Sootras are only extensions or elucidations of these.                               
                                                                  |ÉäÊiÉ SÉäÊiÉ SÉäÊiÉ.
EòÉä +rùÉ ´Éänù Eò <½þ |É ´ÉÉäSÉiÉ EÖòiÉ +ÉVÉÉiÉÉ EÖòiÉ <ªÉÆ Ê´ÉºÉÞι]õ& * +´ÉÉÇMnäù´ÉÉ +ºªÉ ʴɺÉVÉÇxÉäxÉÉlÉÉ EòÉä ´Éänù ªÉiÉ +ɴɦÉÚ´É *
ªÉ BEòÉä VÉɱɴÉÉxÉÒ¶ÉiÉ <ǶÉxÉÒʦÉ& ºÉ´ÉÉȱ±ÉÉäEòÉxÉÒ¶ÉiÉ <ǶÉxÉÒʦÉ&* ªÉ B´ÉèEò =nÂù¦É´Éä ºÉ¨¦É´Éä SÉ ªÉ BiÉÊuùnÖù®ú¨ÉÞiÉɺiÉä ¦É´ÉÎxiÉ*