The Pioneer anomaly, the unexplained change of direction of Voyager 2 beyond Saturn’s orbit, the Fly-by anomaly, the difference in the value of G measured precisely from the accepted value, and many more unexplained results of observation - all point to the defects of the modern theory of gravitation. MOND that was proposed to answer some of these anomalies is also not satisfactory. The problem lies in the accumulative nature of scientific theories where all subsequent theories are built essentially upon the earlier theories. Since the presently available data was not known when the earlier theories were formulated, the developments on them may not be based on solid foundations. Reductionism, which restricts holistic vision, compounds the problem. We propose to review the earlier theories keeping in view the presently available data and reformulate the theory of gravitation from those modified theories.
We hold that gravitation is not an attractive force, but a stabilizing force that has two different functions: structure formation and displacement - moving bodies to equilibrium position with respect to the field that holds them. Bodies under the effect of gravitation act somewhat like an openly polygamous population, where each member interacts with the field and not every other member. Since all other fundamental forces of Nature interact with bodies in a one-to-one correspondence like monogamous couples based on a combination of proximal and distance variables, these interactions are a class apart and could not be unified with the theory of gravitation. Structure formation due to gravity can be explained only if we understand its basic nature including the causes of and the fractional nature of spin (1/3 of ½ = 1/6) of elementary particles. This makes gravity a composite force of 6+1=7 both for macro (classical) as well as micro (quantum) bodies without involving the hypothetical graviton. This also makes ‘G’ a variable, not as proposed by Dirac in 1937, but like ‘g’ – the acceleration due to gravity, which varies with height and ‘g’ – the magnetic moment of the electron, which relates the size of the electron’s magnetism to its intrinsic spin. Displacement can be in 5 x 2 + 1 = 11 different types in positive and negative directions, which leads to action. This leads to a total of 11 x 11 + 1 = 122 types of possible actions.