Tuesday, April 02, 2013


All perceptions are basically results of measurement. Measurement is a process of comparison between similars. Thus, the result of measurement is always expressed in scalar quantities, i.e., numbers. Number is a characteristic of confined objects that differentiates between similars – if there are no similars, it is one; otherwise many. Infinity is like one – without similars, but whereas the dimensions (differential perception of “inner space” from “outer space”) of one are fully perceptible, the dimensions of infinity are not fully perceptible. When everything belongs to the same category like the primordial soup, there are no numbers (it can only be accumulated or reduced in density due to some force that also causes ripples). If there are no similars in an infinite expanse, there can be no measurement, hence no perception. That is the true interpretation of singularity, because both the perceptions of space and time rest on differential perception of sequence – order of arrangement of objects and events respectively, both of which are confined.

All particles are dense objects with confined energy. From the present state to the primordial state can be reached only through the reverse process of disintegration like the stellar nebulae. The spawn out material in supernova explosions is recycled within the galactic space, which leads to further structure formation. At the micro level, it is like the protons changing into neutrons and vice versa, where the quarks disintegrate to reintegrate in a new combination. The quark-gluons plasma here is no different from those in the primordial state. It is also like plants coming out of Earth and again being assimilated in it to reappear differently. If we apply the principle of symmetry to the creation event, it will point to final dissolution (not the “big crunch”), which will be similar to the primordial soup. Here mass and energy are not reduced infinitely to a point called singularity, but redistribute to achieve local equilibrium everywhere.

Inertia is the expression of conservation laws – the conservation of state or resistance to change. When the imparted energy fully displaces the object, it acquires a new state of motion and tries to conserve it after the initial force ceases to operate on it. When the object is partially displaced, it tries to conserve its earlier state. This is generally called elasticity. We call it inertia of restoration. In the case of big bounce, the interaction between the inertia of motion leading to the final dissolution and the inertia of restoration both operated simultaneously. But ultimately, both did not match – otherwise there would have been no creation event.

Dark matter is the reality, because all matters are essentially dark – not non-interacting, but devoid of the radiation that makes them luminous. When we “see” matter, which consists of protons, neutrons and electrons, we do not “see” the nucleus or the extra-nucleic part that constitutes its mass. All that happens is the radiations released through the external electrons interacts with similar radiation in our eyes and gets compared (measured). Since the radiation moves out through the background structure (whatever it may be, because there is no true void), it generates a magnetic field and becomes electromagnetic radiation. Since electric and magnetic fields move perpendicular to each other and both move perpendicular to their direction of motion, we “see” this as three mutually perpendicular dimensions. But in this perception, mass is missing. All that we “see” is radiation. But when we touch an object, we cut down the radiation and directly “touch” the mass that we cannot “see”. Thus, all matters are essentially dark. Has anyone ever tried to conduct the double slit experiment using protons instead of photons and electrons? It will prove our interpretation.

Dark energy is an oxymoron, because we perceive energy only through its interaction, If it is dark meaning non-interacting, it cannot be energy. If it is smooth and persistent, it must be a background structure. If space “expands”, it must expand into something. That something must be a universal background structure. If we treat each “loop” not as infinitely small, but as big as the universe, then it will mean infinite closed universes. The “big bounce” can then be explained as the macro equivalent of proton-neutron conversion. The “ripples” will be a natural consequence of these conversions, which will travel in the background structure due to inertia. This will generate a bow shock effect, which will slow it down to create a fixed boundary, from which the ripples will bounce back. It will lead to another “big bounce” and the process goes on repeating, albeit increasingly slowly, so that if we take the current rate of expansion, it will appear as the “inflation”. Structure formation takes place during such interaction. We have a detailed theory for this. The background structure is dark matter and its interaction (spinning universe) with large scale structures are dark energy.

There are a large number of different approaches to the foundations of Quantum Mechanics (QM). Each approach is a modification of the theory that introduces some new aspect with new equations which need to be interpreted. Thus there are many interpretations of QM. Every theory has its own model of reality. There is no unanimity regarding what constitutes reality. Unlike super-gravity, string theory is said to be a consistent and well-defined theory of quantum gravity, and therefore calculating the value of the cosmological constant from it should, at least in principle, be possible. On the other hand, the number of vacuum states associated with it seems to be quite large, and none of these features three large spatial dimensions, broken super-symmetry, and a small cosmological constant. The features of string theory which are at least potentially testable - such as the existence of super-symmetry and cosmic strings - are not specific to string theory. In addition, the features that are specific to string theory - the existence of strings - either do not lead to precise predictions or lead to predictions that are impossible to test with current levels of technology.

There are many unexplained questions relating to the strings. For example, given the measurement problem of quantum mechanics, what happens when a string is measured? Does the uncertainty principle apply to the whole string? Or does it apply only to some section of the string being measured? Does string theory modify the uncertainty principle? If we measure its position, do we get only the average position of the string? If the position of a string is measured with arbitrarily high accuracy, what happens to the momentum of the string? Does the momentum become undefined as opposed to simply unknown? What about the location of an end-point? If the measurement returns an end-point, then which end-point? Does the measurement return the position of some point along the string? (The string is said to be a Two dimensional object extended in space. Hence its position cannot be described by a finite set of numbers and thus, cannot be described by a finite set of measurements.) How do the Bell’s inequalities apply to string theory? We must get answers to these questions first before we probe more and spend (waste!) more money in such research. These questions should not be put under the carpet as inconvenient or on the ground that some day we will find the answers. That someday has been a very long period indeed!


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