Tuesday, January 12, 2016



सर्वैश्वर्यपरिपूर्ण स्वयं भगवान. तारे निराकार करि करह व्याख्यान.
परिणामवाद व्याससूत्रेर सम्मत. अचिंत्यशक्ति ईश्वर जगद्रूपे परिणत.
मणि यैछे अविकृते प्रसवे हेमभार. जगद्रूप हय ईश्वर तवु अविकार.
(श्री चैतन्य चरितामृत – मध्य – 6/140, 170, 171)

Shree Chaitany Mahaprabhu’s teachings have been compiled in a set of books called Shree Chaitany Charitaamrhta (श्री चैतन्य चरितामृत). He is the last authoritative interpreter of the Brahma Sootram or Vedanta. To differentiate the views of Mahaaprabhu from among the maze of myriad interpretations of Vedanta, it is called the “Unimaginable Differentiation-Non-differentiation Concept (अचिन्त्यभेदाभेदवाद)” or “transformational concept” (परिणामवाद). The subject relating to Brahma is most complicated. Depending upon the level of understanding of different persons, the authorities have described the same subject differently. The Vedanta Sootram has generally been interpreted by Mahaprabhu from the perspective of devotion (भक्ति) for common people. Here is an Upanishad based interpretation of Mahaprabhu’s views for scrutiny by the learned.

“Evolution (परिणाम)” can be of two types. When the object is a conglomeration of different elements or has components (like everything in the Universe is composed of quarks and leptons), it can have material transformation (औपादानिक परिणाम - विवर्त्तवाद). However, Consciousness, which is revealed through mind, is different. In all perceptions, while the objects of perception may change; its perception as “I know this (object)”, does not change. In such cases, it can only have sequential spatiotemporal transformation (लाक्षणिक परिणाम) as one state is perceived after another spatially or temporally at the next moment. Motion is such a spatiotemporal transformation. Thus, mind is always mobile. When it slows down to retain some information, it is called intelligence (बुद्धि). The “I” part in “I know” is the ego (अहंकार), because only through it, freewill is exercised. The “know” part is a function of the knower (चित्त or ज्ञ).

While the Universe is full of differentiation (भेद – for laymen गोपी or calf - वछ्डे), their perception is non-differentiable (अभेद – for laymen कृष्ण). There is a limit on our knowledge (अचिन्त्य) of this mechanism (for laymen वंशीस्वन that unites the गोपी or वछ्डे with कृष्ण). Hence, without deeper analysis, surrender to Krishna totally as the source of everything. At one level, He is not knowable (अचिन्त्य), but at the other level, He alone becomes everything (एकं वा इदं विवभूव सर्वम् - Rhk Veda - 8-58-2, also तस्य कर्तारमपि मां विद्धि कर्तारं अव्ययम् - Gita 4-13) “Unimaginable Differentiation-Non-differentiation Concept (अचिन्त्यभेदाभेदवाद)” also has three parts. It can be interpreted in various ways. Here the interpretation of Gita is followed to explain these from the perspective of Saankhya Yoga (सांख्ययोग), Karma Yoga (कर्मयोग) and Buddhi Yoga (बुद्धियोग or उपासना योग). But first what are these and how different are they from each other? Since Gita is the essence of all Upanishads, those will also be referred to. Gita 3-3 refers to the first two Yogas equating Saankshya (सांख्य) with Knowledge (ज्ञानम्) and Karma with Operation (कर्म) of the Yogi. Let us first understand implication of Operation (कर्म) and Knowledge (ज्ञानम्).

Gita 4-17 classifies Action into three categories: 1) कर्म - action following natural principles (like धर्मं चर – follow righteous conduct), 2) विकर्म - prohibited action against natural principles (like स्वाध्यायान्मा प्रमदः - do not neglect your studies) and 3) अकर्म - all other actions that neither conform to nor contradict natural principles (like roaming aimlessly). While the first one results in happiness (स्वर्ग), second leads to sorrow (नर्क) and the third leads to unknown but undesirable destinations (असूर्यलोक). Gita advises to understand their nature carefully, as it is not always easy to classify an action into any one of the three categories (गहना कर्मणो गतिः - Gita 4-17).

Knowledge (ज्ञानम्) also has three divisions. The lowest is illusion (अज्ञानम् or प्रातिभासिकी दृष्टि) like the water of a mirage or in darkness, treating a rope as a snake. This is false both conceptually as well as physically (भ्रान्ति, मिथ्याज्ञानम् or विपर्यास) as here one concept is superimposed (अध्यास) on another without conforming to natural principles. In a more mundane level, consider one after the other waves in the sea rushing towards the shore. Sometimes a crest will meet a trough and both will neutralize each other. No one can identify the crest and the trough that existed a moment earlier. They are spread out in the sea – their source and constituent - in a superposition of states. After the novel Dracula, this has been sensationalized by an “undead” Schrodinger’s cat, which is smeared out everywhere in a state of half alive and half dead, waiting to come into either state permanently after some intriguing concept of observation or measurement. Comparison with wave is not proper; as unlike the wave, the cat is discrete from its surroundings. This is one example of invalid knowledge (अविद्या) in quantum theory.

Treating the universal characteristics of elements or objects as it is and noting their interactions, is valid knowledge (विज्ञानम्). It is also called the operational concept (व्यावहारिकी दृष्टि), as we often use this knowledge to meet our requirements. Yet, it is of limited use. Essentially, all macro objects are made up of a few fundamental particles. Knowing all of their combinations is absolute knowledge (ज्ञानम्) and the absolute concept (पारमार्थिकी दृष्टि). Individually revealed or known part of this knowledge (ज्ञानम्) is called proper knowledge (विद्या) and the unknown part is called ignorance (अविद्या). Quantum superposition described above is ignorance (अविद्या) about the unrevealed present state of the particles. Ignorance (अविद्या) has another meaning, which will be discussed later and which also proves the quantum superposition of states a wrong concept.

The knowledge (ज्ञानम्) regarding everything in the universe is also called Brahma (ब्रह्म) because it covers everything (वृहत्त्वात्) and involves everything (वृंहणत्त्वात्). Brahma is generally not one, because, as a part of Self (आत्मा), it is many. Self (आत्मा) in relation to all objects is defined as that, which is i) the base for that object without which the object cannot exist (उक्थ यतो उत्तिष्ठन्ति सर्वाणि भुतानि), ii) which is Brahma for it, i.e., which pervades both in and out of it, and iii) which is equally spread out everywhere in it from the hair in the body to the tips of nails (समं इति मेने – आलोमेभ्यः आनखाग्रेभ्योः). This threefold structure only can become प्रजापति. This (यस्य यदुक्थं ब्रह्ं च साम तत् तस्यात्मा) is the material interpretation of Self (आधिभौतिक भूतात्मा). Then there is the quantum or energy interpretation (अधिवैदिक देवात्मा or नैगमिक आत्मा – वाङ्मयप्राणाङीप्राणा समवाये यो अयम् अङीप्राणः स इतरेषां प्राणानां आत्मा) and Sentient interpretation (आध्यात्मिक ब्रह्मात्मा or औपनिषद आत्मा – अव्ययपुरुषालम्वनः क्षरपुरुषसाधकोअक्षरपुरुषः). Further, in relation to evolutionary states, there are अव्यक्तात्मा, महानात्मा, विज्ञानात्मा, प्रज्ञानात्मा, भूतात्मा etc. Thus, there are various types of Self (आत्मा). But at the ultimate level, when all coincide without differentiation (परेअव्यये सर्व एकीभवन्ति– मुण्डकउपनिषद–3-2-7), It is beyond numbers and is called Paraatpara Parambrahma (परात्पर परम्ब्रह्म). The mechanism of creation has been described in Rhk Veda 1-164-15/16.

The creation can be described in three different ways: 1) starting from the singularity, 2) starting from the Galactic clusters to Solar system and 3) staring from the Earth. The first is called स्वयम्भूमूला सृष्टि or सर्वभुतान्तरात्मा, which can only be postulated; hence called ज्ञानकाण्ड or ॐकारोपासना. Since it is not utilized in our daily requirements, but has its time evolution without mutation (without changing form) or being affected by other effects, it is called उदासीनभाव and अमृत. This is Nature (प्रकृति) and all types of Self (आत्मा) belong to this category. The statement – न तस्य कार्यं करणं च विद्यते – श्वेताश्वेतर उपनिषद - is with reference to this only. The second is called सूर्यमूला or हिरण्यगर्भ सृष्टि, which can both be postulated, and the knowledge utilized to meet various energy requirements, hence called दैवात्मोपासना and the process is known as उपासनाकाण्ड or उद्गिथोपासना. Since it deals with the nuclear reaction only, it is called ब्रह्म and प्रकृतिभाव. It is the cause for the creation. The third is called पृथिवीमूला or अश्वत्थ सृष्टि, which appears, disappears and reappears in different combination as a new product. Hence it is called भूतात्मोपासना or प्रणवोपासना and कर्मकाण्ड. Since it deals with all created objects, it is called विकृति and कार्य. Since it is morphed into various objects, it is called शुक्र. Though all these can be differentiated from each other, they come from the same non-differentiated source – hence तदेव शुक्र तद ब्रह्म तदेवामृतमुच्यते. This leads to Unimaginable Differentiation-Non-differentiation Concept (अचिन्त्यभेदाभेदवाद).

According to Ishopanishad (ईशावास्योपनिषद -10), the Self (आत्मा) concept is different from both proper knowledge (विद्या) and ignorance (अविद्या). This appears confusing, as proper knowledge (विद्या) is a part of absolute knowledge (ज्ञानम्) and knowledge is a function of Self (आत्मा). But the Vedas consider everything only at the universal level. Knowing properly is also an operation (कर्म). Everything in the universe is a combination of both objects and events and their perception. Objects represent Nature (प्रकृति) in limited form of mass and energy, both of which are inseparable though their degree of dominance in any combination may vary (there is no bare mass or bare charge, even though some people claim so). Confined energy is mass. Where mass dominates, it is called objects and where there is no confinement, it is called energy. Since energy always moves mass, the creation is never static, but is always going through various transformations – hence operation - कर्म. Their cognition (संविदित दर्शन) is knowledge (ज्ञानम्).

Gita 3-9 advises constructive actions as per universal principles (यज्ञार्थात् कर्म) for executing action without attachment or inertia (मुक्तसंगः समाचर). For any action, there must be a need and knowledge about the mechanism to fulfill such need. This creates a desire (ज्ञानजन्य भवेत् इछा) that is put into practice through different agencies of action (इछाजन्य कृति भवेत्). This leads to execution of the work (कृतिजन्य भवेत् कार्य). The resultant effect is operation proper (तदेतत् कृतमुच्यते). Thus, the role of mind in any action is important. By using the term मुक्तसंगः, the Lord has tried to play down the role of mind and highlight intelligence. As has been pointed out earlier, mind is highly mobile, but intelligence retains the information by slowing down mind. Mind is attached to sense organs, which receives impulses from the external world – thus increasing attachment. By slowing down mind, its link from the senses is weakened and it turns inward to intelligence. The advice here is: do not give importance to your mind. Give importance to your intelligence in all actions. Then only you can discriminate between the comfortable (प्रेयस्) and the desirable (श्रेयस्). This only will lead to action conducive to liberation (अबन्धन).

The next stanza (Gita 3-10) says that having created the Universe in such an operation (यज्ञार्थात् कर्म), the Creator blessed the created to prosper by following similar principles that led to their creation as it will yield them everything they want. The question is how? Operations as per universal principles (यज्ञार्थ कर्म) have two divisions: natural (प्राकृत) and practicable (विधेय). The first is what really happens in Nature. It has three divisions: Consciousness related (sentience or cognitive – आध्यात्मिक उत्तमपुरुष), micro or quantum energy related that creates different elements (physics – आधिदैविक मध्यमपुरुष) and macro or mass interaction related that creates the objects of our desire by combining different elements (chemistry – आधिभौतिक प्रथमपुरुष). The practicable (विधेय) is the imitation of natural principles by people (मानुषयज्ञ) to get the desired result (देवाननुविधा वै मनुष्याः and यद्वै देवा अकुर्वंस्तत् करवाणि - शतपथब्राह्मणम्).

The word Yagnya (यज्ञ) has been interpreted as sacrifice, which does not convey its full meaning. The word has been derived from the root यज्, which has three meanings: beyond quantum, quantum interaction and macro interaction (ज् देवपूजा, संगतिकरण, दानेषु). The last is chemical interaction at macro level (स्थूलशरीर सम्वन्धी). Since everyone is a child of God, everyone has excellence in equal measure (ईशावास्यमिदम् सर्वम्). But it is unequally distributed. Some people excel in one area while others excel in other areas. There is no one who is totally useless (अयोग्यपुरुषः नास्ति), though the person who can put everyone and everything to its proper use is rare (योजकः तस्य दुर्लभः). Each one of us is like a cup full to the brim. If we want more milk or sugar, we have to first give up (देवदानम्) some concoction to enjoy the extra milk or sugar (तेन त्यक्तेन भुंजिथा). Since this changes the ability of the physical body (भूतशरीर सम्वंन्धी) for interaction with others, it is called chemistry related (वाङ्मय or अन्नमयकोष).

The second is physical interaction at sub-atomic or quantum level (देवसंगमन) related to the subtle form of objects (सूक्ष्मशरीर सम्वन्धी) to get the desired object. This practice is invariably used in Tantra. The general principle is, Nature not only creates everything, but also provides alternatives for their sustenance. For example, we require appropriate food for sustenance. If we require stronger bones, we should eat bones, but since that is not desirable, Nature provides alternate calcium rich food that serves the same purpose by breaking up at subatomic or quantum level to generate the required effect. If we require blood, we should take-in blood. For this also, Nature provides different food that increase blood. Similarly, we use the alternatives provided in Nature for recreating the Natural effect through quantum interaction. People who live near rivers infested with crocodiles used to apply turmeric on their body before crossing river, as its smell is a deterrent to crocodiles. Smell is a quantum property. Couples wanting a male child performed a ritual (पुंसवन कर्म), which ensured the birth of a male child. This is still practiced successfully in some places in India and Nepal. These are described in the Braahmana (ब्राह्मणम्) part of the Vedas. However, most of the commentaries do not interpret these correctly. Since quantum systems deal with energy exchange, these are called energy related (प्राणमयकोष).

Where the emphasis is on the mind, but material objects are used as supplements to imitate natural processes, it is called worship (देवपूजा). It is related to the causal body (मनसोत्पद्यते बिन्दुर्यथा क्षीरं घृतात्मकम् - योगकुन्डलिन्युपनिषद), as the mind is placed in the specific energy field and energy is modified by mind through recitation of mantras (शक्तिमध्ये मनः कृत्वा मनः शक्तेश्च मध्यगम् - ibid), i.e. connect one’s mind with the universal mind through energy (मनसा मन आलोक्य तत्त्यजेत्परमं पदम् ibid). It may be noted that all dates related to worship (like Diwali or Holi etc) follow the lunar calendar (चन्द्रमा मनसो जातः - पुरुषसूक्त). Since physical objects are not important here, it leads to the creation of another base (उक्थ or विन्दु), which surrounds material offered to give rise to the desired object. Thus, it is called mind related (मनोमयकोष).

All structures are formed when the positive charge of the nucleus (अग्निम्) is confined by the negative charge or the electron orbit (सोम) limiting or separating it from others (चंद्रार्कमध्यमा शक्तिर्यत्रस्था तत्र बन्धनम् - योगकुन्डलिन्युपनिषद). Thus, in our sacrifices, we pour ghee, which is soma, to fire, by reciting specific mantras and using specific ingredients (समीधा) that determine the nature of quantum interaction. The nucleus (अग्निम्) carries positive charge that always moves out from the center to the periphery (गति). The electron orbit (सोम) limits this motion to specific energy levels by pushing it back towards the center (गति). Where each outgoing ray reaches equilibrium with the incoming force (स्थिति), that point is called the position of the electron (चंद्र). Hence in quantum mechanics, it is said that the electron has no fixed position – it is only a probability wave. These three – the nucleus, the intra-nucleic field and the electron orbit – are called आत्मा, प्राण and पशु respectively for that object. The term आत्मा has been described earlier. Since the intra-nucleic field is the interplay of energy, it is प्राण. The radiation coming out of the electron orbits interacts with our eyes to make the object perceptible. Hence it is called पशु (यत् अपश्यत् तत् पशवःतैत्तिरीय आरण्यक). These constitute the macro world.

There is constant exchange of energy between the nucleus (आध्यात्मिक प्राण) and the intra-nucleic field (आधिदैविक प्राण). Both go into each other. This has been described by ऐतरेय आरण्यक as: “I am the first derivative of the non-perishable bosonic (energy) field. Though I am its derivative, I eat into it for sustenance though I do not have any teeth (it only absorbs and releases). In return, it also eats into me” (अहमस्मि प्रथमजा ऋतस्य पुर्वे देवेभ्योअमृतस्य नाम. यो मा ददाति स इ देवमावत अहमन्नमन्नमदन्तमद्मि). This is the so-called vacuum energy of modern cosmology. In the Vedas, it is called प्रहितांसंयोग. It is a continuous process. In the Nature, it requires continuous operation. For this reason, Gita 3-9 used the term “यज्ञार्थात् कर्म”. Atoms could combine with each other to produce everything in the universe only because of this “eating” (उच्छिष्ठात जज्ञिरे सर्वम – अथर्ववेद - 11-9-11). We enjoy the objects that are its “left over” - प्रवर्ग्य. For this reason, the Isha Upanishad says: ईशावास्यमिदम् सर्वम्. Since this is the universal perpetual inertia, anyone following this principle will not be trapped into the differential inertia that is cause for attachment (कुर्वन्नपि न लिप्यते). Hence this is called अबन्धन कर्म. But it has another important implication.

The Upanishads talk about two more divisions: विज्ञानमय कोष and आनन्दमय कोष. All five belong to the Imperishable Self (अव्यय) in its आध्यात्मिक manifestation, where there is total non-differentiation. Hence Mundaka Upanishad 3-2-7 says, everything including the knowledge and actions (operations) become one here (गताः कलाः पंचदश प्रतिष्ठा देवाश्च सर्वे प्रतिदेवतासु. कर्माणि विज्ञानमयश्च आत्मा परेअव्यये सर्व एकीभवन्ति). Because of the “यज्ञार्थात् कर्म”, the मनोमयकोष moves continually to विज्ञानमय कोष. This creates two triplets: 1) आनन्दमयकोष, विज्ञानमयकोष, मनोमयकोष and 2) मनोमयकोष, प्राणमयकोष, अन्नमयकोष. The former is imperishable (अमृत) and the later is mutable (मृत). The middle - मनोमयकोष – belongs to both groups (अमृतं मृतं च). As the Universal Mind (श्ववस्यस मन), it is one and indivisible (एक, अखंड). As emotional mind (हृदयाख्य मन), it is many. Energy (प्राण), by nature, is indivisible – moving mass. But when confined, it behaves differently (खंडाखंड). Matter (अन्न or वाक्) is always divisible and many (सखंड).

While the last three (मन, प्राण, अन्न or वाक्) are constituent causes (उपादान कारण) of the universe, the first three (आनन्द, विज्ञान, मन) are catalytic causes (सहकारी कारण) only. But for liberation, they behave in the reverse order: the triplet of आनन्द, विज्ञान, मन become the primary cause, while the other three (मन, प्राण, अन्न or वाक्) become only catalytic cause. According to Kanaada: कार्य नाशयति कर्म – effect freezes the operation, meaning: after the action stops or after it is measured over a time, the resultant fixed state or result is called effect. He further states that thought is the inertia of mind, which is superseded by another stronger cause like intense pain (कष्ट); or if the cause that led to the inertia is stopped. In the latter category, he lists two reasons: getting the object of desire (प्राप्ति) or getting to know about it (ज्ञानम्). Thus, knowledge destroys the inertia of thought – hence stops operations, as operation starts with desire, which is a function of the mind. Since the first three are immutable (अमृत) and are associated with knowledge (ज्ञानम् including proper knowledge विद्या), they are contrary to ignorance that leads to operation (कर्म). Thus, proper knowledge (विद्या) is also equated with knowledge (ज्ञानम्) and ignorance (अविद्या) is equated with operation (कर्म). Gita and Ishopanishad use these terms in this sense.

What is the genesis of operations (कर्म)? Mundaka Upanishad (1-7) says; the universe came into existence from “the imperishable” (अक्षरात् संभवतीह विश्वम्). Gita (8-21) also says the same thing (अव्यक्तोअक्षर इत्युक्तस्तमाहुः परमां गतिम्). What is this “imperishable”? Only energy is imperishable and is necessary for all operations including the creation event. Thus, it must be a form of primordial energy. Shukla Yajurveda (8/36) says: everything is created from one source (यस्मान्नजातः परो अन्यो अस्ति) called Prajaapati (प्रजापतिः यद्वै किञ्च प्राणि स प्रजापतिः शतपथब्राह्मणम् 11-1- 6-17), who is also spread out in everything (य आविवेश भुवनानि विश्वा). The former is called the creator (सृष्टब्रह्म) and the later the controller (प्रविष्टब्रह्म). While the former acts like the primordial base (आलम्वन) on which everything rests individually and collectively, the later make everything acquire spin (प्रजया संरराण – सम्यक् रममाण - ibid). The universal base for these two is called Shodashee (षोडशी), which literally means, “the sixteen”. It has three aspects. The universal base is called imperishable and immutable (अव्यय). According to Gita 18-61, this is called Ishwara (ईश्वर). This only creates perception, as perception is possible only when something is fixed. Even cameras could take pictures if something remains fixed for a duration depending upon the power of the camera. The energy aspect is called non-perishable (अक्षर), which binds all (सर्वं वै प्राणेनाबष्टब्धम् – ऐतरेयब्राह्मणम्). The mass aspect is called mutable (क्षर). According to Gita 3/15, Brahmaa (ब्रह्मा) is a derivative of this mutable (क्षर). These three have five divisions each. Including their totality, they become Shodashee (षोडशी). The non-perishable (अक्षर) is the catalytic cause and the mutable (क्षर) is the material cause of the universe.

Of these, the totality Shodashee (षोडशी) remains unattached with everything like the space is unattached with every object, while connecting all as interval between them (आधारशक्तिः प्रथमा सर्वसंयोगिना मता). The imperishable and immutable (अव्यय) also has four other aspects as described in Aitareya Braahmanam. These four are called Chhanda Avyaya (छन्द अव्ययपुरुष), Shareeraavyaya (शरीराव्ययपुरुष), Mahaavyaya (महाव्ययपुरुष) and Vedaavyaya (वेदाव्ययपुरुष). These are eternal like space, though they may be confined like the space within a pitcher (घटाकाश). Of these, Mahaavyaya (महाव्ययपुरुष) is Ishwara (ईश्वर) and Shareeraavyaya (शरीराव्ययपुरुष) is Jeeva (जीव). Gita 2-20 (न जायते म्रियते) talks about Mahaavyaya (महाव्ययपुरुष), while a similar shloka in Kathopanishad talks about Shareeraavyaya (शरीराव्ययपुरुष). Hence there is slight difference in their descriptions. It is not correct to say that one has followed or copied from the other.

There are three different views regarding the relation between Jeeva and Ishwara. Some say Jeevaatmaa is also infinite like Ishwara. This is the view of Saankhya. Others say, Jeevaatmaa is a limited part (अंश) of Ishwara, who is Infinite. This is the view of Vedanta. The third view is that this body conglomerate is Jeevaatmaa. This is the view of non-believers in birth-death-rebirth cycle. 

If we analyze the Vedanta view (अंशो नानात्वात..), there are four different concepts to explain it. These are called Cause and effect relationship (अंशांशी भाव सम्बन्ध). Though according to the Vedas there are 13 types of such relationship, only four types are applicable in the case of Ishwara-Jeeva. According to Vyasa, it is vimba-prativimba (विम्ब-प्रतिविम्ब) concept. This is what is described with the example of a number of buckets of water reflecting the Sun. While each bucket reflects the same Sun, each bucket can show different reactions independently. This way one Sun appears as many different Suns, though all are due to and part of the same Sun. While the reflected Sun is disturbed when the water is disturbed, the original Sun remains unaffected. 

Others opine that the Sun is radiating all around. While the radiation is moving away from the Sun in different directions, they are all related and attached to the Sun at all times. Unlike the bucket of water, which can be partially independent, the radiation (here Jeeva) is not independent (of Ishwara). If the radiation is somehow affected, the Sun will also be affected. Hence God comes to the rescue of His devotees. This is the Soorya-rashmi bhaava (सूर्यरश्मि भाव).

According to Vallabhaachaarya, it is like fire and splinters coming out of it (वह्नि विस्फुलिञ्ग भाव). Unlike the other two, the splinter is not tied to the fire (ग्रन्थिवन्धन सम्बन्ध अभाव). The splinters move to other places pravargya jagat (प्रवर्ग्य जगत) and can attain nirvaana there independently. 

The fourth is the Saankhya view, which is called space inside pitcher concept (घटाकाश भाव). Here the Jeeva and Ishwara are same like the space inside a pot and outside the pot. As long as the pot is there, it is space inside pitcher (घटाकाश). The moment the pot is broken, the space inside pitcher (घटाकाश) merges with the infinite space. 

Between the 3rd and the 8th Stanzas of the 3rd Chapter, Gita gives seven different reasons to show that no one can ever exist without any operation and one should perform necessary action for his sustenance, as described below:

1.      The so-called freewill is really not free, but is our response to a given situation based on our past experience, which makes it deterministic. Such operations generate differential inertia that disturbs the universal flow dragging us with it (like a person drowning in the sea), which is perceived as sorrow. Mere knowledge of the problem cannot give us relief. So we must do something to come out of it (Gita 3-4).
2.      If we are drowning, we must try to swim. Giving up action is no solution to our problems. If we sit idle, we only will suffer (Gita 3-4).
3.      There are many bodily functions that continue unabated regardless of whether we are conscious about it or not (breathing, different circulatory and other perpetual functions, etc). Even when we are not making any movement, we are “sitting” or “sleeping”, which are also actions. We cannot remain even for a moment without any operation (Gita 3-5).
4.      Many of our responses or feelings are caused due to natural principles. We feel hungry or thirsty or sleepy due to natural reasons (Gita 3-5).
5.      Even when we try to control our senses and sit in meditation, often our mind goes to other subjects propelled by our senses. It is necessary to control the senses by the mind. (Gita 3-7).
6.      If we do not initiate any operation, our problems will continue and propel us with it. It is necessary and desirable to initiate appropriate steps to remedy our problems (Gita 3-8).
7.      Simply tonsuring the hair and wearing saffron clothes will not make one a monk. One must give up worldly comfort, desire for name, fame and power, and pursue the Godhead relentlessly for liberation and guide others through one’s conduct. If the lion does not hunt, the deer will not come to its mouth. Hence it is desirable to give up work that generates differential inertia and pursue work that leads to universal inertia (Gita 3-8).

For this reason, Gita emphasizes performance of operations that do not lead to differential inertia (अवन्धन). Such operations are divided into four categories. The first is the constructive operations as per universal principles (यज्ञार्थ कर्म). The second is the essential performances necessary for living (लोकस्थितिनिर्वाहक कर्म). The third is non-attachment to the result of one’s operations (उपेक्षाबुद्धिकृत कर्म). The last is natural functions like food, rest, etc (स्वभावसिद्ध सहजकर्म). Of these the first needs explanation. The others are easy to understand.

Revelations are of two types: 1) of external dimensional objects (अद इति यत्प्रतीयते) and 2) internal perceptual revelation (as “I know” – जानाम्यहम् - explained below). External objects are revealed through measuring instruments, sense organs, mind, etc, with limited capacity - hence limited in dimension (विस्तार) - spread. When cognized through our intellect; depending upon whether we had similar cognition before or not, it becomes known/indeterminate. For example, if we see a snake and become afraid, adrenalin runs in our blood in reaction. But in the cognition of “fear” by “I”, snake is not the direct cause, as it is only a form cognized through our faculty of vision. One who does not have knowledge of snake will not react similarly when seeing it. The “fear” is due to a specific cognition in our brain, which is far away and not connected with the physical snake. Cognition has no dimension like physical objects. It (fear in this example) is also not related to one or more specific external causes. Same logic applies to other emotions like happiness and sorrow. The intensity of emotion (reaction) may grow or lessen due to repetition, but it is not dimension. We may know about the object of our pleasure or pain. But like the snake example, they are not the direct cause for happiness or sorrow. It is something internal. The cognition as “I know…”, also cannot be categorized like other perceptions, because it is universally cognized in all perceptions. The sense organs receive impulses from their specific sources. Mind carries all such impulses to the brain, where it is mixed. Intellect reveals the net picture after such mixing. But it can only be cognized by the Self – “I”. Since cognition is the result of measurement, which is comparison between similars, and since the basic concepts cognized by all persons at all times are similar, it must be universal. Hence cognitive revelation is independent of other factors.

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