Sunday, April 09, 2017



Someone asked his teacher: What is an electron? His teacher replied: “An electron consists of a pair of entangled type I Weyl fermions. Weyl fermions define volumes but not surfaces. If you could isolate one, it is massless - a quantum particle. The parts exchange energy with each other cyclically in a series of microstates, with the entanglement acting as one of the containers and defining nearly the entire surface. A small part of that surface interacts with the volumes giving the electron a small amount of mass via the geodesic effective factor evaluation (EFE). Each of the containers defines its space and relationship with the other containers in degrees relative to the energy distribution in a microstate = propagati­on and the illusion of revolving behavior. An electron is often described as a cloud because the probability of encountering one of its active parts is really small (about 4%). Instead what is typically observed is the wave field of the entanglement and its exchanges of transient energy (e.g. electricity). Under the right conditions, the energy cannot escape the same way and builds up until a photon is created. I talk about this in 'QuinQuennial Relativity (QQR) and call it by its cellular equivalent, meiosis, but outline the slightly more sophisticated but related mitosis (which fits gluons)”.

The reply did not satisfy him. He asked me for clarification. This is what I told him.

Since 1930, scientists are searching for the existence of Weyl fermions (massless), Dirac fermions (massive), and Majorana fermions (each its own antiparticle). Only recently during 2014, there was some report about the possibility of it being seen. Thus, these are only assumptions and not theory. But I do not refute observation. It is usually correct. Only its interpretation is mostly wrong. Before I answer about electrons, some more facts are necessary to be kept in mind.

Weyl fermions define volumes but not surfaces. If you could isolate one, it is massless - a quantum particle. That part is correct. But when he says the parts exchange energy with each other cyclically in a series of microstates, with the entanglement acting as one of the containers and defining nearly the entire surface - it is not easy to understand.

Weyl fermions define volumes but not surfaces. But what does that mean? You take a solid object. It has volume and surface. You take a liquid – say a glass of water. It has volume and also a variable surface, which is determined by the container. Now if you take a gas, it has no fixed volume or fixed surface, unless you confine it in a sealed box. Thus, the so-called Weyl fermions fall in a category between liquid and gas. During my student days, the teacher used to explain electricity by the working of water pipe lines. You can see the similarities if you study their properties.

What is a particle? A particle is a minute fragment or discrete quantity of matter that has an interface with the surrounding environment - a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume or mass. Most often particles are associated with solid materials that have an interface with an enveloping gas or liquid. However, particles might just as easily be liquid droplets in air, bubbles in water or emulsions. There is no rule governing how large or small an object must be to be considered a particle. Some define particles as ranging from one nanometer to one millimeter. Some place no size restriction at all - a heavenly body such as a planet or a star might be considered to be a very large particle. However, particle scientists generally leave the astronomical bodies and the molecular or sub-atomic particles to astronomers and physicists. As particles become very small and large in number, particle systems will exhibit very large surface areas in relation to their mass. The interface between the particle and its environment displays properties that are markedly different from the bulk material. Materials in particulate form (e.g. powders, slurries, droplets, emulsions) can often be handled, transported and processed with greater ease and economy than the same materials in bulk forms. Composite subatomic particles (such as protons or atomic nuclei) are bound states of two or more elementary particles. 

What is a wave? A wave is an oscillation accompanied by a transfer of energy that travels through a medium (space or mass). The main properties of waves are Amplitude, Wavelength and Frequency. Frequency refers to the addition of time. There can be standing waves or running waves. Wave motion is the propagation of disturbances - that is, deviations from a state of rest or equilibrium - from place to place in a regular and organized way. Most familiar are surface waves on water, but both sound and light travel as wavelike disturbances, and the motion of all subatomic particles exhibits wavelike properties.


A particle – classical or quantum – must have a fixed position with respect to some origin. Most of the times, this position is within a band. The particle can be at rest or be mobile. When it moves, it has momentum, which includes mass. A wave also has momentum, but it continuously transfers momentum. Hence it does not have a fixed position within a band, but is continuously mobile, though the medium is usually fixed. Since the wave requires a medium through which the momentum needs to be transferred, and since the wave is nothing but propagation of energy, the medium or the field has to have some mass. What is a field? When we enter into a region of space, if we experience some force, we call that region a field of that name. If we experience electromagnetic force, we call it electromagnetic field, if we experience gravity, we call it gravitational field, etc. Thus, field represents a force, and the nature of force is to move mass. But momentum involves mass. Wherefrom this mass comes in waves? There is nothing as bare charge or bare mass as Dirac postulated. It has never been found. Thus, the field itself must have some mass, which appears as density or strength of the field. The mass-energy equivalence equation does not work here.

Quantum particles are no different from classical particles and do not act differently, but because they are so small and indistinguishable from each other, it is very difficult to know their nature. Further, their sensitivity to their environment is much higher. This has been sensationalized by modern physicists to claim that the quantum world is weird. For every quantum system, there is an equivalent macro system. Only we should know how to correlate it. The correlation is generally not a linear function, which makes it difficult to recognize, but it is possible.

Fermions are so called because they obey Pauli’s exclusion principle – two particles cannot occupy the same position. But this is possible only with mass. This is called impenetrability (विष्टम्भकत्व) in the Vedas. Hence all fermions are matter particles. There cannot be mass-less fermions. It is impossible. The classification of mass-less particles is wrong as it stretches a rule that is not applicable in the context. Massless “particles” coexist. Bosons can occupy the same position – can co-exist. Thus, bosons are energy units. Energy cannot have mass in the normal sense. Because mass is the fixed impression generated by some body on another. Energy being ever shifting with mass, it cannot generate fixed impression. Yet, since there is no bare mass or bare energy, we classify mass and energy by their relative dominance. When mass dominates energy (सख्ये न्यौकाः – ऋग्वेदः 5-44-15) and tries to confine it as internal energy (सोमः), it is called mass (रयिः). When energy dominates mass and tries to reveal itself as external energy (अग्निम्), it is called energy (प्राणः). Both can have three states like solid or confined, fluid and plasma (आपः-वायुः-सोमः and अग्निम्-यमः-आदित्यः respectively). Their solid state is revealed as density. According to modern view, plasma is a cloud of protons, neutrons and electrons where each have come loose from their respective molecules and atoms, giving it the ability to independently, instead of as a bunch of atoms. Vedas considers each separately. Their collective state is called (भृगुः and अङ्गिरा respectively). Everything in the universe has both components of internal and external energy (अग्निसोमात्मक जगत्). The strength of the confining energy (संस्त्यान) is called negative charge. The strength of the outgoing energy (प्रसव) is called positive charge.

Thus, there are only two types of particles: fermions (सत्यम्) and bosons (ऋतम्). Since fermions confine energy (प्राणः) within it, the same can be released to come out of the confinement (प्राणो वा अर्कः - शतपथब्राह्मणम् – 10-4-1-13). This is called positive charge (पुं लिङ्गः). Since bosons (रयिः) confine this out going energy (सोमः) to give it a structure (मूर्त्तिः), they are called negative charge (स्त्रीलिङ्गः). These are the only two physical entities and there is no third entity (द्वयं वा इदं न तृतीयमस्ति – शतपथब्राह्मणम् – १-६-३-२३). Of these one always confines the other (अत्ता चैवाद्यं च – शतपथब्राह्मणम् – १०-६-२-१). Now, all particles or forces can operate only on some base (आवपनम् or खं ब्रह्म). On that base, depending upon their dominance (mass-charge ratio), one will contain (अन्नाद or रमणशील रं ब्रह्म) the other, which will be the contained (अन्नम् or सुखसाधक कं ब्रह्म). What we “see” is the exterior, i.e., the container (अन्नाद or रमणशील रं ब्रह्म). It requires the other two for its stability (प्रतिष्ठा). When all three conditions are fulfilled at one position, we get a stable particle that can be used for other purposes according to the need (शान्तिमय शं ब्रह्म). This is the universal principle, which makes everything four-fold (चतुष्टयं वा इदं सर्वम् - कौषितकीब्राह्मणम्) – hence holographic.

Of these, the base does not interfere with the objects or particles and forces (अन्तरा क्षान्तं भवति). Hence it is also called space (अन्तरिक्षः). Hence, compared to the other two, it appears massless. The third – the contained - creates an impression on the second – the container. Hence, it is massive. The last two can exchange their position depending upon their dominance of mass or energy. Thus, they are the anti-particle (प्रतिरूपः) of each other (अग्निर्यथैको भुवनं प्रविष्टो रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बभूव ।... वायुर्यथैको भुवनं प्रविष्टो रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बभूव ।... कठ 2-2-9 &10). This, and not what modern science describes as Weyl, Dirac and Majorana fermions, are the three aspects of fermions. This is the universal principle found in macro world also. For example, a sea turtle is born without any sex symbol. It acquires sex during incubation. A human child on conception is sex-less. It develops sex later. If someone wants a male child, it can be ensured by treatment during the first two months of pregnancy. One lady in Nepal is doing it. I can do that also.

When the above three combine in the required proportion, then only, they form a stable combination that leads to creation of everything else in the universe. Thus, the Vedas call these as the essence of all forces (एषोऽणुरात्मा चेतसा वेदितव्यो मुण्डक 3-1-9), which gives rise to the fundamental forces of nature based on their mutual interaction (यस्मिन् प्राणः पञ्चधा संविवेश - ibid). Since the container and the contained are variables, each can exhibit its variability in their interaction. When both exhibit proximity-proximity variables (नित्य गतिः), it is called strong nuclear interaction (अन्तर्यामः) that is in perpetual action mode and is responsible for all interactions involving creation of particles. When both exhibit proximity-distance variables (सम्प्रसाद गतिः), it is called beta decay of weak nuclear interaction (वहिर्यामः) that is responsible for stabilizing particles. When both exhibit distance-proximity variables (यज्ञ गतिः), it is called electromagnetic interaction (उपयामः) that is responsible for all chemical reactions. When both exhibit distance- distance variables (साम्पराय गतिः), it is called alpha decay (यातयामः) that is responsible for radioactive disintegration. When both revolve around their common barycenter at the maximum permissible distance (उरुगाय प्रतिष्ठा), it is called gravitational interaction (उद्यामः). Since Yajurveda deals with the science of motion, we find these terms in it frequently, such as: उपयामः गृहितोऽसि.....

We have seen that negative charges confine everything (स्त्रियः सतीस्ताँ उ मे पुंस आहुः – ऋग्वेदः 1-164-16). Any particle can only be explained as a combination of two complimentary statements, which give partial information individually (अनवर्णे इमे भूमिः – तैत्तिरीय आरण्यकम्). What we “see” is the radiation reflected out of it. We cannot “see” light. We see objects that reflect or release light (उपयामः गृहितोऽसि). When we touch an object, we do not touch the reflected radiation that we see, but we touch the object that is emitting or reflecting the light. The object proper is a fermion (सत्यम्) and is different from the radiation through which it becomes perceptible, which involves bosons (ऋतम्). For this reason, everything can be said to be in a sea of electromagnetic field (ऋतमेव परमेष्ठि ऋतं नात्येति किञ्चन । ऋते समुद्र आहितः ऋते भूमिरियं श्रिता – तैत्तिरीयब्राह्मणम् – 1-5-5-1).

Coming to what an electron is, it is a localized four-fold structure discussed above that exists as a sea and confines any radiation emitted by the nucleus. Where the radiation hits the sea, it generates a tip. That tip is called electron. Since it is not possible to know when the nucleus with release a flare (like solar flare), we cannot pinpoint the position of any electron. The flare can vary in intensity based on the internal structure of the nucleus. For a hydrogen atom, it could release the flare in one direction at a time. But when there is a neutron, which constantly interacts with the proton in a n-p chain, they behave like pulsars – releasing flare in two opposite directions. With more protons and neutrons, the energy of such dual flares vary that create electron orbits. Since we are inside that “sea”, which is negatively charged, it is said that “रयिर्वा एतत्सर्वं यन्मूर्त्तं चाऽमूर्त्तं च । तस्मान् मूर्त्तिरेव रयिः । प्रश्न – 1-5”.


Can a particle with the above properties be a wave which has contradictory properties? No. Then what is a photon? Why is it called both a particle and a wave?

In any electromagnetic field, it is known that there is an electric field and a magnetic field, which are mutually perpendicular. These field are like planes. It is known that two planes intersect in a straight line. When these planes move in a direction perpendicular to both as in the electromagnetic wave propagation, it means the straight lines moves ahead in the direction of one of its ends. This creates a tip, which is nothing but energy moving on a straight line. This tip is called a particle named photon. The fields propagate as waves. Hence photon is not both a particle and a wave, but the tip of the intersecting line of electric and magnetic fields. Since this line can move either way, photon is said to be its anti-particle. Since it is pure energy, it is massless. Since it is never at rest (only moving electric fields generate magnetic fields and vice versa), it has no rest mass.

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