Friday, March 31, 2017


A friend challenged my opinion about relativity by quoting time dilation. Here is my response to him.

I am not superstitious, but I apply my mind to whatever I read before accepting or rejecting them. You have resorted to a circular logic here: since relativity is true, time dilation as really happening for the high energy muons and then you claim time dilation proves relativity!

But before I explain what you have read and believed, let me tell you something about time dilation itself. The so-called experimental proof by atomic clocks have failed to prove time dilation. Hence a fake report was circulated by forging figures to “prove” time dilation. The readings are still available in the Naval Archives and you can verify for yourself that the initial reports of the readings were changed in the final report. I challenge you to prove me wrong.

The so-called time dilation in GPS systems are not at all based on time dilation of SR. It is due to refraction. Light is known to slow down or speed up depending upon the density of the medium through which it travels. The atmosphere has different layers with varying density. Thus, light slows down while coming through such layers. Thus, it does not prove time dilation.

High energy muons or Cosmic ray muons are produced at about 16000 meters above the ground as cosmic radiation from outer space collides with the atoms of the Earth’s atmosphere. Apparently scientists have observed that significant numbers of these cosmic ray muons (which are produced in the upper crust of the Earth’s atmosphere) survive to reach to the ground level. In other words a significant proportion of cosmic muons are able to travel a distance of 16000 meters in their life span. But scientists from their experiments on laboratory muons, found that muons live for only about 2 microseconds and travel at a speed of 0.9c. So according to them, a muon can only travel about 600 meters in its life time.  Then how could the cosmic ray muons, produced in the upper crust of the earth’s atmosphere, are able to travel a distance of 16000 meters and reach the ground? The only possible explanation for this scenario according to the superstitious is time dilation and length contraction.

But here Scientists have only noted the life span and speed of low energy muons produced in particle accelerators. How can the same be considered true for the high energy cosmic ray muons? For example, imagine that we have seen a boy traveling a distance of 100 meters in 10 seconds. We calculate his speed as 10 meters/sec. Now if we see his twin brother traveling 200 meters in 10 seconds, we would not say that the second boy has experienced time dilation or space contraction. Rather we would simply say that the second boy has run faster than the first boy. Or else we have to suspect that our measurement of time was not correct in one or the both scenarios. And same must be the case with the muons.

The probability that a muon decays in some small time interval dt is λdt, where λ is a constant “decay rate”. The "lifetime" τ of a muon is the reciprocal of λ, τ = 1/λ. This simple exponential relation is typical of radioactive decay. You do not have a single clump of muons whose surviving number can be easily measure. Instead, you detect muon decays from muons that enter your detector at essentially random times - typically one at a time. Their decay time distribution has a simple exponential form. Decay time distribution D(t) means that the time-dependent probability that a muon decays in the time interval between t and t + dt is given by D(t)dt. Because the muon decay time is exponentially distributed, it does not matter that the muons whose decays we detect are not born in the detector but somewhere above us in the atmosphere. An exponential function always “looks the same” in the sense that whether you examine it at early times or late times, its e-folding time is the same.

Muons are stopped in a large block of scintillator, where they subsequently decay into an electron/positron and two neutrinos. A short light pulse is produced by the stopping muon which is detected and amplified by a photomultiplier tube. When the muon decays a second pulse is produced by the emitted electron or positron. The signals from the photo multiplier are fed into an electronic circuit which determines the time delay between the two pulses.

Under certain conditions (gravity, energy state, environment etc.) why not a muon travel faster or live longer before it decays into the smaller particles. We know that electrons can travel at different velocities. Then why do scientists insist that all muons travel at the same speed, and introduce absurd notions like time dilation/ space contraction when they see cosmic muons traveling a much longer distance than the laboratory muons in their lifetime? Why not the muons produced in the laboratory experience the same time dilation and length contraction if their speed was same as that of the cosmic ray muons? And if they did, why have not we seen the laboratory muons travel the same 16000 meters as their cosmic counter parts? And if they travelled 16000 meters distance in their life span of 2 microseconds, what would be their speed?

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