Monday, April 30, 2018



Gravity is an inter-body force – not confined to one particle or body, whereas the others are intra-body forces - confined to (strong, weak) or arising out of (electromagnetic, disintegration) one particle or body. Can they be united in one theory? Yes – because whole is a sum of its parts and more. Why cannot we produce and control gravity? Because it is the mother of all forces including those we can ever use. Just like space and time in their universal manifestation appear as spacetime that forms the background where all objects are found and all events take place, and in their confined or digitized manifestation appear as the interval between objects and events, the same single force in its universal manifestation appears as Gravity and in its confined or digitized manifestation, resolves into the other fundamental interactions of Nature through compression, refraction, rarefaction and diffraction. Just like the same electricity appears as light, defused air, cool air, or makes ice based on the nature of the gadget used, the same Gravity in different non-linear combinations with mass, produces infinite varieties.

                Space and time are mental constructs that are perceived as our concepts of sequence and interval. The ordered sequence of intervals between objects are space and those of events are time. Since the intervals have no markers to describe them, we use alternative symbolism of the boundary objects and events to describe digital versions of analog space and time. We measure these by choosing an easily intelligible and fairly repetitive interval as the unit and compare the given interval with it, by scaling up or down. There is no natural or absolute unit for measurement of infinite space and time. The given interval can return different results depending upon the nature of the unit.

                Energy is the great unknown quantity, whose existence is perceived and measured during its state of change. Mass, charge, etc., are properties observed by others, during instantaneous transfer of energy. Like space and time, energy also is a mental construct that cannot be perceived directly, but is observed through its effect on mass. There are two static states before and after the state of change. The former is the conserved or the potential state, which is the force (cause for action). The latter is the effect measured as work. The intermediate perpetually transient state is motion, which leads to continued displacement due to inertia – thus, linking everything to time evolution. This perpetually transient – hence spinning - state is Gravity, which appears as different forces based on its linear or non-linear effect on mass. We measure motion or energy, indirectly from effects like relative displacement or scattering angles by using arbitrarily chosen units with similar properties. Charge is the interactive potential of a body. If the motion is directed away from a central position, it is positive charge. In the opposite case, it is negative charge, even though the displacement or scattering angles may be equal. Mass is the impact it creates. When energy generates motion, we feel the impact as mass.

QED is said to be a renormalized theory as a consequence of spontaneous symmetry breaking. But if something breaks spontaneously, it cannot be symmetric! There is nothing as bare charge or bare mass. In some versions of QFT, the bare mass of some particles may be ± infinity, which is meaningless, as infinity is not a big number, but something that cannot be measured. In the theory of the electroweak interaction using the Higgs boson, all particles have a bare mass of zero. This is written as:
m = m0 ± δm,
where m denotes the experimentally observable mass of the particle, m0 its bare mass (?), and δm the increase in mass owing to the interaction of the particle with the medium or field. The rate of spontaneous emission of an atom or a molecule can change depending on the electromagnetic modes of the environment in which the particle is placed. Like “Purcell effect”, it should affect nuclear transitions also. The density of the medium affects mass (a stone appears lighter under water, but heavier at high altitudes). The same mass causes different effects based on the energy that propels it. Thus, δm is really not mass, but energy that increases the effect of  impact when it interacts with another body. In QED radiative corrections to the electron propagator exist, no matter how far it is from other particles.

The statement: “the coupling terms in the Equation of motion (of an interacting theory) vanishes smoothly as t → ± ∞ implies that at asymptotic times there is no interaction and asymptotic states are free-states. If the interaction vanishes, the bare mass m0 change to renormalized or physical mass. But the asymptotic free-states must have physical mass m. Then, how will m0 be driven to m without interaction at t → ± ∞? The theory does not tend to become free - only the on-shell particles become non-interacting with each other because of the large distance between them.

Rest is a state where all forces acting on a body cancel each other. Removal of one force by an observer resolves “rest” into two equal and opposite forces being released. In the primordial universe, where force flowed freely in the primordial background, there were infinite numbers of such points of rest, which floated like bubbles in the background structure. Sometimes the accumulations grew by obstructing other free flowing forces. This can be imagined as similar to quark gluon plasma. They were the first “particles”. Their flow depended only on the density fluctuation of the field or the background structure. That determined the “geometry of space” and is known as Gravity. Gravity does not pull. Like electromagnetism tries to bring the charges of two bodies to equilibrium (as in atoms), gravity tries to bring the two bodies to equilibrium around a common barycenter. Since it is related to mass, it also is affected by the density of the medium. Hence, the value of the gravitational constant is NOT uniform or constant throughout the universe.

The scales of Nature are of two types: discreet and continuous. All confined objects, their properties and their interactions are discreet. When a confined object interacts with another, it creates a type of impression on the other. We call it mass. Mass is directly related to the density of the medium, but weight is not affected by gravity. A stone weighing 1 kg will not weigh about 250 gm on Moon, as is wrongly taught in text books. For weighing, we require a standard unit. The unit weight taken to Moon will also be equally affected as the stone to give the same reading: 1 kg. If we use a different unit weight on Moon, the other units has to be transformed by relative G, which will return the same reading. There is no proof to support that gravity affects weight.

                An apple falls to the ground not because gravity pulls it. It remains attached to the stem defying gravity. The mass of the apple increases with time to attain a maximum value. It falls because the capacity of its stem to hold it tightly gets reduced as the fruit ripens. It changes the equilibrium between the stem and the fruit, as the barycenter of the stem-fruit system is nearer to the center of the fruit than that of the stem. The fruit moves towards the Earth with the bigger mass than the stem because the density of the medium below is rarer. The apple attains equilibrium on reaching earth. The force that brings the masses together is the macro equivalent of the strong force. Spacetime curvature is myth, as it does not affect the branch underneath or a bird flying by or a man sitting under the falling apple. Gerber’s solution to Mercury’s perihelion, which was plagiarized by Einstein did not require GR. A recent report (Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 031103 – Published 17 January 2018) on linear scalar perturbations of black holes shows that strong cosmic censorship conjecture of GR is violated in the near extremal regime. Information paradox puts a question mark on GR.

A proton carrying positive charge is always at the nucleus. An electron that confines the positive charge is always in one of the orbitals. The alpha decay always involves changes in the proton number – inside the nucleus. A beta decay always involves changes in the electron number, as a consequence of adjustments in the nucleus.

                All interactions – resolution of equilibrium into a couple of opposite charge variants of gravity - involve two particles, each of which can show positive (distancing from center) or negative (proximity towards center) tendencies (charges) that are variables according to the field strength. In strong interactions, both show confined proximity-proximity tendencies. Strong interaction is characterized by exclusive, but perpetually transient position (close coupling) due to compression. The weak interaction is a perpetually proximity-distance interaction that is characterized by harmonious refraction (loose coupling without breaking the confinement) between the constituents. It is essentially as strong as the electromagnetic force, but it appears weak because its influence is limited by the energy of the Z and W bosons. The energy density limits the range of the weak force to about 10-18 meters, and it vanishes altogether beyond the radius of a single proton.

Their macro (outside confinement) equivalents with non-linear characteristics are electromagnetic interaction (distance-proximity interaction leading to equilibrium where density of the medium plays a role in fixing orbitals through rarefaction) and alpha decay (distance-distance interaction - disharmonious interaction leading to exclusion from the main body through diffraction). If the more massive body shows distance, while the other, proximity variable tendencies, the force is called electromagnetic interaction, which is characterized by the tendency of rarefaction of the field to attain equilibrium. But if both components are dominated by positive charge (distance-distance variables), then it leads to alpha decay due to diffraction, which is the symmetric fifth force of Nature.

                Gravity is the mother of all interactions that leads, in different combinations, to infinite varieties.



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