अचिन्त्यस्याप्रमेयस्य निर्गुणस्य गुणात्मनः । उपासकानां सिद्ध्यर्थं ब्रह्मणो रूपकल्पना ।
The ultimate reality is beyond human understanding, immeasurable, and without any attributes. Yet, the knowledgeable impose attributes to IT for the easy comprehension by laymen.
The word property - गुण - has been derived from the root गुण् मन्त्रणे + घञ. It has been defined as द्रव्याश्रय्यगुणवान् संयोगनिभागेष्वकारणमनपेक्ष इति गुणलक्षणम्. It can be interpreted as स्वाश्रयसमानाधिकरणो यो द्रव्यविभाजको धर्मः. This means that a property – गुण – is that, which, as a class (blue, green, red, all belong to the same category of property - color), is found only along with substances, which is singularly unique in itself (it does not have any characteristic other than itself), and independently, it does not move or cause motion. We use property to differentiate between same and different objects and describe them - like by number, quantity (meter, gram, liter, etc.), color, taste, etc.
If we want to assign any characteristic to something, we must find or describe its base (उक्थ – यतो उत्तिष्ठन्ति सर्वाणि भूतानि) and then describe the properties or characteristics of its radiations (प्राण) that arise from its confinement (अशीति - अशूँ॒ व्या॑प्तौ सङ्घा॒ते च॑). When we “see” something, what we actually perceive is the radiation emanating from its surface meeting the electrons of our eyes. If we touch the object, we do not touch these radiation, but we touch the confining surface (अशीति) that emits the radiation. Thus, what we “see” is different from what we “touch”, even though both belong to the same object. Hence, without mixing all perceptions, we cannot describe the object properly (अनवर्णे इमे भूमिः). This is universal to all perceived objects in the universe.
A unique and fundamental identifying characteristic can only be described by itself (Tattwa - तत् त्व or तत्त्व). The single measurable (Miti - मिति or मेय) minimum unit (Matra - मात्रा) of something fundamental can only be “that-ness” (Tanmaatraa - तन्मात्रा). It is imperceptible. Because visual perception requires three conditions to be satisfied: 1) it must radiate light within the visible spectrum - रूपवत्व, 2) it must not be a single unit - अनेकद्रव्यवत्व and 3) it must have three spatial dimensions - महत्त्व. When it becomes compounded through accumulation (बहुत्व or भूमा - Bhoomaa) by scattering (Moorchhanaa - मूर्छना) particles to have form (Moortee - मूर्ति मूर्छनात्) and become perceptible, it becomes the mother (Matara - मातर) or special characteristic (मा इतर – मेतर – metara or matter) of such uniqueness to be revealed as a specific aspect of matter (conglomerate of elementary particles – Bhoota - भूत). For this reason, Rigveda 3-46-3 says:
प्र मात्राभी रिरिचे रोचमानः प्र देवेभिर्विश्वतो अप्रतीतः ।
प्र मज्मना दिव ईन्द्र पृथिव्याः प्रोरोहोर्महो अन्तरिक्षादृजीषी ।
Nothing is “ex-nihilo”. Thus, the ultimate reality must have all the fundamental characteristics. These are compounded through pentafication (पञ्चीकरण) in a sequence (अणु, रेणु, गुण, महाभूत, स्थुलभूत) to form all structures in the universe (आत्मक्षर, विश्वसृट्, पञ्चजन, पुरञ्जन, पुर). While the deformations (विकार) take place, it requires a base (प्रतिष्ठा) to sustain it. That base does not have the properties of perception – hence dark (कृष्ण). According to Rigveda 10-90-3: पादोऽस्य विश्वाभूतानि त्रिपादस्यांमृत दिवि. This is the so-called 75% dark energy, which is non-interacting. The rest of 25%, expands and then contracts to form structures. For this reason, Rigveda 10-90-4 says: त्रिपादूर्ध्व उदैत्पुरुषः पादोऽस्येहाभवत् पुनः. This means, it first expanded by 3 steps (2+3+4 = 9, taking the total to 10) before reducing to 1 part. In the Puranas, it is described as Trivikrama - त्रिविक्रम वामन taking three steps to cover the universe and compress Bali to the nether worlds. The missing 9 parts (of the 25%) is the so-called dark matter.
Trying to explain the mechanism of creation, Rigveda 10-130-3 asks and answers in the same mantra:
कासीत् प्रमा प्रतिमा किं निदानमाज्यं किमासीत् परिधिः क आसीत् ।
छन्दः किमासीत् प्रउगकिमुक्थं यद्देवा देवमयजन्त विश्वे ।।
Here the question कासीत् is also the answer - क आसीत् – Prajaapati (प्रजापतिः). Here the word Maa - मा - indicates confinement to make it measurable (from माङ् माने). The difference between one, which indicates non-availability of a similar and infinity (अनन्त), which also has similar characteristics (नैकत्वमस्त्यनानात्वं विनैकत्वेन नेतरत् । परमार्थे तयोरेष भेदोत्यन्तं न विद्यते), is that, while the dimensions (परिमाण) of one are fully perceptible, the dimensions of infinity are not perceptible. Chhandah – छन्दः is the unit of energy (प्राणमात्रा छन्दः). Since the confined objects are forms of the same ultimate reality, it has similar appearances. But is not the same like the water in the sea and a bucket of the same water on land. The confinement changes the characteristic continuous motion of the sea water. This similarity can only be described as a reflection (प्रतिछन्दः). For this reason, part of the ultimate reality (परमप्रजापतिः), which Itself is Amaa – अमा - immeasurable, evolves into three divisions (त्रिवृत्) called: प्रमा, प्रतिमा, and प्रतिमान प्रजापतिः. For this reason, Yoga Sootram says: तस्य वाचकः प्रणवः – AUM - which is the combined form of अ, उ, म representing उक्थ, ब्रह्म, साम, or प्रतिष्ठा, उन्मेष, सीमा, respectively. Of these, the परमप्रजापतिः is also called सर्वाधारभूता, अमृतात्मसंस्था, सहस्रबल्शेश्वर, अश्वत्थप्रजापति, षोडशीप्रजापति, त्रिपुरुषपुरुषात्मक ईश्वर, etc. For this reason, Rigveda 10-114-8 says:
सहस्रधा पञ्चदशान्युक्था यावद्द्यावापृथिवी तावदित्तत् ।
सहस्रधा महिमानः सहस्रं याबद्ब्रह्म विष्ठितं तावती वाक् ।।
Yajurveda 8-36 says:
यस्मान्न जातः परो अन्यो अस्ति य आविवेश भूवनानि विश्वा ।
प्रजापतिः प्रजया संरराणस्त्रीणिं ज्योतींषि सचते स षोडशी ।
These three aspects - त्रिणिं ज्योतींषि - are the conscious (मन), energy (प्राण) and the material (वाक्) aspects. They are inseparable complements. They co-exist; but vary in degrees of freedom. Describing these, Gita 15-16, 17 says:
द्वाविमौ पुरुषौ लोके क्षरश्चाक्षर एव च । क्षरः सर्वाणि भूतानि कूटस्थोऽक्षर उच्यते ।
उत्तमः पुरुषस्त्वन्यः परमात्मेत्युदाहृतः । यो लोकत्रयमाविश्य़ बिभर्त्यव्यय ईश्वरः ।
Here, the conscious dominated part is called Avyaya – अव्यय (मनोमयं मनस्तन्त्रम् मनोमयं मनः पञ्चकलोऽव्ययः परः पुरुषः). The energy dominated part is called Akshara - अक्षरः or Praana – प्राण (मनोमयं प्राणतन्त्रम् मनोमयः प्राणः पञ्चकलोऽअक्षरः पराप्रकृतिराभ्यन्तरा). The matter dominated part is called Kshara - क्षरः or Vaak - वाक् ((मनोमयं वाक् तन्त्रम् मनोमयी वाक् पञ्चकलोऽआत्मक्षर अपराप्रकृतिरन्तरङ्गा).
The three fold reality is the Manifest Brahman (सगुणब्रह्म), because that is involved in creation. For this, the Kathopanishad 2-3-1 says:
ऊर्ध्वमूलोऽर्वाक्शाख एसोऽश्वत्थः सनातनः । तदेव शुक्रं तद्ब्रह्म तदेवामृतमुच्यते ।
तस्मिल्लोकाः श्रिताः सर्वे तदु नात्येति किञ्चन ।। एतद्वै तत् ।।
The ultimate reality, which is beyond these, is the Un-manifest Brahman (निर्गुणब्रह्म). For IT, Shwetaashwatara Upanishad – 6-7 says:
तमीश्वराणां परमं महेश्वरं तं देवतानां परमं च दैवतम् ।
पतिः पतीनां परमं परस्तात् विदाम देवं भुवनेशमीड्यम् ।।
Brahman is Avyaya Purusha - अव्ययपुरुष. Here the word Purusha – पुरुष - implies confinement (पुर्या शेते). It can be perceived in two different ways: 1) from the perspective of intelligence (बुद्धि) and knowledge (विद्या), which is looking inwards; and 2) from the perspective of our sense organs (इन्द्रिय), which are all externally directed (पराञ्चिखानि). The manifest Brahman (सगुणब्रह्म) is related to those perceived through sense organs (इन्द्रिय) and is called mentally perceived (प्रज्ञानब्रह्म), whereas the un-manifest Brahman (निर्गुणब्रह्म) is related to Pure Science (शुद्धविद्या or विज्ञानम्). While everyone can perceive the transformative universe (वैकारिक जगत्) through the sense organs, only the knowledgeable can “see – (पश्यन्त्यार्षेण चक्षुषा)” the un-manifest unchanging aspects of the universe (प्राकृतिक जगत्).
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