Sunday, January 08, 2012


One gentleman had sent us many queries on miscellaneous subjects. Here is our response to those queries

ASHTA SIDDHIS: Life is characterized by free-will, which is exhibited by independence for motion or action. Hence life is defined as the presence or absence of sense organs (sendriyam chetana dravyam nirindriyam achetanam). The cause for this is the presence of the three types of agnivaishwaanara, taijas and praagna. All objects are confined. Confinement degenerates into increase of temperature (ashraamyat, atapyat, samatapyat). These are latent heat in its solid, fluid and plasma forms that interact through conduction, convection and radiation. Hence, the objects that have these “agni” in abundance are variously described as “dhruva-dhartra-dharuna, nibidaavayava-taralaavayava-viralaavayava, nirbhuja-pratrirnna-ubhayamantarena”, etc.  Only heat can move objects away from its center or position. All objects in the universe can be divided into three categories based on whether they are not-conscious, internally-conscious or conscious (asamgnya, antah-samgnya, and sasamgnya). These are also called non-living objects like metals (and stones), plantations, and living organisms (dhaatu, moola and jeeva). In dhaatu, only vaishwaanara that acts through conduction; is present. In moola, both vaishwaanara and taijas that act through convection; are present. In jeeva, all three are present.

The radiative praagnya is the cause for sense organs. For example, our eyes are the repository of praagnya, which is a type of Vidyut – called Maghavaan Indra (Roopam roopam maghavaa vobhaveeti – Rhk – 3-53-8). Indra Vidyut are of 14 types. It sets up its own electromagnetic field, which interacts with other similar fields that reaches our eyes. Both being similar, get compared, which is the same as measurement by our internal mechanism. The result of measurement is knowledge. The plants can have internal movement and only one type of sensory perception: touch (sparsha). They are one of the 14 groups of life forms – bhoota sargas or jeeva-yonis. They cannot move from their root position because of the rigid cell walls. Others can move from their position at will because of fluid cell walls.

The virus and bacteria (krimi), insects (kita), animals (pashu), birds (pakshi), human beings (maushya) are the next five categories that can move on their own, but requires a support or ground (pratishthaa). The virus and bacteria (krimi) come at the bottom of the evolutionary sequence with 1000 (numerous), 100, 32 or 16 extended organs for stability (legs). The insects (kita) come next with 8 and 6 legs. The animals with 4 legs are the next category. The birds have two legs. The monkeys also can stand on two legs. Hence they come just before human beings in the sequence of evolution. However, other than human beings, all are called “teeryak yoni” for two reasons. The body structure of animals from head to tail is perpendicular to the legs. In the case of birds, it is at an angle. Only in the case of human beings, it is in the same straight line moving from “bhuh” towards “swah”. Only humans could copulate facing each other in their normal posture. All others have to bend. Those born out of cell division (swedaja) have only one sense organ. Those born out of eggs are deficient in one sense organ (ekona indriya) and others have unbalanced sense organs – some functioning much better while others not so developed. Only human beings have 11 sense organs that are perfectly balanced.

Then there are 8 types of “Deva yonis”. They are dominated by radiative praagnya, hence not attached to ground. Thus, they are called “apaada” – leg less. Naturally, they are highly mobile. In addition to the 11 sense organs, they have the “Ashta Siddhi”s and 9 types of “Tushti”, through which they can interact with others in the universe. Since we interact through our sense organs, these are also called as sense organs. Hence they have a total of 11 + 8 + 9 = 28 sense organs. Thus, it is not available to normal human beings.

We do not understand what you mean by LSD and ASC. Kindly elaborate for us to reply.

DEITIES AND THEIR ASPECTS: There is a difference between “Devaah” and “Devataa”. They are like heat and temperature. The Aitareya Braahmana and the Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad describe it all. The number of “Devaah” is 33. These are the perceptible quantum particles (divati bhaashati iti devam). The “Devataa” are the intensity of radiation (rashmi bhutaastu devataah). The number of “Devataa” is described variously. There are different “Gana” and “Ganadevataa”. The fundamental principle is described in the Rhk Vedic dictum: “yaddevaah indrate shatam”. Regarding their aspects, some of these descriptions you will find at the last page of our book. In general, the principle is as follows: We know what electricity can do. But we have never seen it. We know it only through its effect. We can get light, defused air, cool air, heat, etc. from electricity. But to get these we require a medium like a bulb, fan, AC, heater, respectively. Without these medium, electricity is useless for us. Each of these functions in different energy levels. The deities are like the mediums through which we feel the presence of power – electricity in this example, even though we could not see IT.

The shapes of the deities are based on a functional necessity like the shapes of bulbs etc. The decorations (alankaara) of the deities depict their “saatwika bhaava”. Their weapons depict their “raajasika bhaava”. Their vehicles (vaahana) depict their “taamasika bhaava”. Now, we give you one practical example: As you enter through the northern gate of the Lord Jagannatha Temple at Puri, immediately to your right is the “Shitalaa” temple. People who suffer from pox go there and all have been benefited. There are plenty of bats hanging from the ceiling of that gate, who never leave that place and all efforts to relocate them at identical other gates have failed. The area is dirty due to their excreta. It is well known that bat excreta are a powerful antidote for pox. Hence whoever goes to that temple automatically gets treated. The Temple has some unknown mechanism that attracts bats. If we set up another “Sitalaa” temple without that mechanism, all our worship will be in vein. Our ancients knew those mechanisms; hence could achieve many things that we cannot dream of. It is all about a higher science.

FUNCTIONING OF AN AVADHUTA: Just like Tantra has two branches, they are also of two types. One type shows off their power through the practice of “hatha yoga”. The others follow the practice of “samaadhi” and lead a reclusive life. You can refer to the commentary of Vyaasa on the Yoga Sootra of Patanjali to find more on this subject.

FATE/FREE-WILL PARADOX: We have already written to you about the mechanism of action. We are free to take any action within our capacity. But its effects will be regulated not in isolation, but after taking into account other factors that may be independently influencing the outcome. We have no control over such factors. This induces an uncertainty in the result. Hence “karmanyevaadhikaaraste maa phaleshu kadaachana”. We have discussed the scientific aspect of it in a paper on reality. We are enclosing a copy of that. But once some action has taken place, its result is fixed. We cannot undo it, as we live only in ever shifting present. Both past and future are non-existent in a formal sense of perception. We can think of past that is no longer as it was when we experienced it. Once an action is performed, it creates a relationship between the performer and the performed. They are entangled. Yet, the situation may not be conducive for us to experience the fruit of such action immediately. In that case, it gets accumulated. The dominant features of these accumulated results of our actions determine our future or next birth. Since each life form puts some restrictions on us, it leads to a new cycle. Hence results of our past actions, which determine how we evolve in our present life; is called “praarabdha”. The balance of the results of our past actions from the previous birth is called “samchita”. The results of both these, including the results of our past actions in the present birth are already determined – hence we do not have any control over it. This is fate – bhaagya or niyati, which is generally deterministic. The present and future actions are under our control. This is called “kriyamaana karma” that has the potential to change our fate. This is our free will. There is no paradox.

PAST/PRESENT/FUTURE ILLUSIONS: Time is the interval between events. As we have already explained, it arises out of the confinement of “chit shakti” due to evolutionary cycles - “shad bhaava bikaaraah”. A cycle is not one action, but a chain of innumerable actions following each other that produce effects sometimes contrary to the earlier effects. All these actions are related only in time. What we perceive is present. What we do not perceive, but remember as memory, is past. What we do not perceive and do not have the memory; is future. Perception is measurement of sensory stimuli by comparing with a data base. The absolute data base is the “chit shakti”. But due to the degree of “vidyaa” or “avidyaa”, we perceive it differently. Maandukya Upanishad and Prashna Upanishad describe it fully. In the wakeful state (or the macro systems), it acts based on external stimuli. In dreams (also in micro or quantum systems), it is cut off from external stimuli, but acts based on its internal stimuli. Here the restrictions imposed by external objects vanish. Hence we may see combinations that are impossible in the wakeful state. But it is based on the memory of the wakeful state. In the deep sleep, even this restriction is removed. Intellect acts in a flash, but mind acts the same in all states of past, present and future. Hence, sometimes, we have the illusion of the future. Depending upon the degree of “vidyaa” or “avidyaa”, it leads to vision or illusion. If our instincts are functioning effectively, it may also be vision – otherwise hallucination. Lots of people misuse it. Regarding time travel and other related issues, please read our paper on reality.

REALITY OF DESTINY AND RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PLANETS AND OUR DESTINY: We have already explained destiny. It is nothing but the accumulated results of our actions. Hence before discussing the planets and their effects, let us understand the mechanism of action. The Ultimate Reality is beyond perception (pravivikta). There is no duality – hence it is Adwaita, whose first manifestation is Maayaa vala. What we generally call as Nature is a misnomer. Actually, it is singularity - sama rasa (kaaranaanaam gunaanaam tu saamyam prakritih uchyate). We confuse the created universe (Srishta Brahma or Sadaashiva) and the internal mechanism (Pravishta Brahma or Ishwara) as reality. Though it is the operator (Purusha), being confined, it has limited capability (Poorna samkshipta shaktikah). Kriyaa shakti stands for "sarva kartritwa" - power to do everything. After confinement, it becomes "kalaa" - which, in a combined state determines charge - "linga" - which has been discussed in our book. Ichhaa shakti stands for "nitya tripti" - ever lasting satisfaction. After confinement, it becomes "raaga" that induces all conscious actions (gyaana janya bhaved ichhaa, ichhaa janya kriti bhavet. Kriti janya bhaved kaarya, tadetat kritamuchyate).

Chit shakti stands for "nitya sattaa" - omnipresence. After confinement, it gives rise to "kaala" – time due to evolutionary cycles - “shad bhaava bikaaraah”. "Aananda shakti" stands for "sarva swaatantrya" - total freedom. After confinement, it becomes "niyati" - determinism. Since Parama Shiva is all pervasive, we also have His powers, but in a state of confinement in different degrees. Once we experience a need "raaga", due to "vidyaa" or "avidyaa", our Ichhaa shakti is activated. This regulates all actions. For example, in any equation, the left hand side represents free-will, since we have the freedom to choose or change the parameters. The right hand side stands for determinism, because once we determine the parameters, the reaction is self-determined. We change the parameters of the left hand side based on our "raaga" that leads to "ichhaa, gyaana, kriyaa" based on our "vidyaa" or "avidyaa". We get confined "aananda" - that is regulated by "kalaa" and "niyati" at the appropriate "kaala", all of which is beyond our control. This determines different outcome for similar efforts by different persons. Thus, "raaga" is the basic motivator along with "vidyaa" or "avidyaa".

Raaga acts like negative charge, whose nature is confinement (samstyaana), because it goes towards the desired object to confine it in its fold. After it gets the desired object, it becomes calm as if in equilibrium, which is the nature of mind. The Moon shows these characteristics: it is cold that is generally associated with dormant state (soma, the solid form of Aapah), it is porous that turns metallic when heated (anna pashu), it stabilizes and nourishes vegetation (oshadhi) that sustains life. Hence Raaga is affected by Moon. Kriyaa is the effect of energy (praana), kinetic form (kurvad roopa) of force (vala). The complementary forces of "vidyaa" and "avidyaa" are like Sun, which contains both macro and micro characteristics (amtritam mritam cha) and regulates perception of light and darkness. Thus, Raaga is affected by the Sun, the Moon and the energy flow.

Graha is not the same as planet. Graha is that which interacts with others either in isolation – one to one correspondence – or collectively in groups. Thus, the Sun, the Moon and the other visible planets that have one to one correspondence with Earth are graha. There is another type of graha that is associated with Yagnyam. Here we are not concerned with that. As we have explained earlier, Moon is porous that turns metallic when heated – a characteristic shown by Mercury’s surface. Hence Mercury is called Chandra putram – a derivative of Moon. Similarly, Mars shows the characteristics of Earth devoid of water, air and life forms. Hence it is called Bhumi putram – a derivative of Earth. Jupiter is the first among the fermions just like Indra is the first among leptons (Brihashpatih poorveshaamuttamo bhavati Indra uttareshaam prathamah). The similarities of Jupiter with protons have been explained by us on many occasions. Saturn represents the state of the Sun, when it would exhaust all fuel and become a so-called red giant. Hence it is called Ravi putram. In spite of its similarities with Earth, Venus exhibits the characteristics that are opposite to evolve life forms. All these are visible to the naked eye, which means that their size and distance (both of which regulate the gravitational interaction) from Earth are capable of influencing Earth.

The “Bha chakra” is not the same as zodiac. “Bha chakra” is the fixed belt of stars sending radiation towards the Earth at different intensities. Based on the intensity of radiation, it has been divided into 12 parts called the Rashi chakra. The north poles of all astral bodies appear to point in one direction. Hence, the motions of all planets appear to be swinging motions (dolana gati). This is called as the precession of the equinoxes. Hence our starting point of Mesha is fixed. The effects on Earth of the grahas get modified due to such affects.

The proportion of land and water surface on Earth is the same as that of solids and fluids in the human body. We have seen the effect of Sun and Moon on Earth in the shape of tide in oceans and rivers. Thus, there is no reason to believe that they do not affect us. However, now-a-days finding a good astrologer is almost impossible. Firstly, few people read the original books. Secondly, fewer understand what they read. Thirdly, almost no one understands the basic concepts used to develop that science. Hence, while most predictions relating to past come true, most predictions of the future fail. Hence one should be careful.

There is another aspect related to grahas. The solar spectrum releases radiations of different types, which have been classified into 1000 types. Of these 7 types are related to formation of grahas (graham jonayah). If we take the north magnetic pole of the Sun as the reference point, then the radiation coming towards Earth is called Harikesha. This is common to all stars (Nakshatra yoni). The radiation coming from the south is called Vishwakarmaa. This is the same as the characteristic radiation of Mercury. Similar for other planets and Moon. The gem stones that radiate similarly are called the stones for that graha. If one wears that stone it has the effect of strengthening that graha. However, we must remember that each graha except the Sun and the Moon owns two houses. If he gives good results in one house, he gives bad results in the other house. Hence wearing gem stones will not only lead to good effect, but also equally bad effect in another area, which may be more harmful and may not be desirable.

UNDERSTANDING ON THE POWERS SHOWCASED BY CRISS ANGEL/DAVID BLAINE: They are magicians with special skills in some areas. Like all other magicians, they are highly skilled in their technique and have a good understanding of human psychology. We would not like to comment much on them unless you point out any particular action of theirs.

HOW A JIVANMUKTA PERCEIVES THE UNIVERSE: A jivanmukta perceives the universe from within. We advise you to read the Yoga Vaasishtha Raamaayana for more on this subject. Another small book we can recommend is “Ashtaavakra Samhitaa”. This has been published by Ramakrishna Mission.

OUR LOGIC AND NATURE’S LANGUAGE: It is often said that mathematics is the language of Nature. This is a highly misleading notion. Mathematics is the science of accumulation and reduction of numbers of the constituent atoms or subatomic particles that constitute an object or a part of it. Based on such accumulation and reduction, the object changes – its physics change. Hence mathematics is related to physics, but all of physics is not mathematics. The validity of a physical statement rests on its correspondence to reality. The validity of a physical statement rests with its logical consistency. They may explain the same thing or they may explain entirely different things. But the problem starts when we bring in “mathematics” to explain the physical phenomenon. Mathematics deals with numbers and the result of measurement are always numbers. Hence mathematics is related to measurement - to explain “how much” but not “what”, “why”, “when”, and “where”, which are the subject matter of physics. Further, mathematics is possible only between similars. We cannot have mathematics involving 5 cows and 3 goats, but we can add or subtract them by treating all as cattle – a common category. Now all of them are animals and have horns. Rabbit is also an animal. So mathematically one can say “horns of a rabbit” like the horns of some other animals. Obviously it will be wrong, because all animals do not have horns. But only one who has seen animals without horns will question this statement. One who has not seen the animals without horns will accept the statement as correct. We do not know whole of physics. Hence if we try to interpret physics from mathematics, we will land in problem. Mathematics cannot explain why some animals do or do not have horns. There cannot be any equation to describe the fragrance of a wild flower or the enchanting smile of the beloved. It is not the same as the curvature of lips.

Further numbers are a property of all substances by which we differentiate between similars. Thus, whatever is not perceived cannot have a number. Hence imaginary or complex numbers are unphysical. Hence they cannot be used in programming. Yet, modern mathematics is dominated by complex numbers. There are many such examples of illegitimate “mathematics” doing rounds.

Logic is not all mathematics. But human mind has limitations. There are areas where human mind cannot reach (Yato vaachaa nivartate apraapya manasaa saha). Nature has kept its secrets hidden beyond our reach. We can know about Vishwa, but not about Vishwaateeta.

THE SCIENCE OF MANTRAS: This is a very unusual but very important topic chosen by you. We complement you for your insight in choosing this topic. “Aham Rudrobhih Vasubhih charaamyahamsookta of the Rhk Veda deals with part of this subject. Poorva Mimaamsaa and Nyaaya Maalaa of Maharshi Jaimini deal with it elaborately. Paanini and Patanjali have also discussed this subject. This is one of the most difficult and vast subjects and it will not be possible for us to explain here like this. Hence we will discuss it briefly.

The Upanishads declare: “Dwe vaava Brahmane roope shabda Brahmam Param cha yat”. To understand this concept, take any object – say the computer. When you say “computer”, what is the content of your statement? If you mean the material structure in front of you, then it is a wrong description, as you are pointing to some substances and there is no justification for calling the substance computer. If you mean the assembly of different parts that makes it a computer, then you are referring to its characteristics and there is no justification for calling the characteristics computer. If you mean the various functions that a computer does, then you are referring to its functions or actions and there is no justification for calling the functions computer. In case you combine all the above characteristics, the question still remains. One who does not know what a computer is will not understand what you say. Then what do you mean when you say a computer?

The answer lies somewhere else. A computer is an object – a padartha. A padartha has two parts – one pada and one artha. You utter a word – pada and point to an object - artha. The word you utter means you had seen similar objects before and everyone called it a computer. This object is like that. Thus, it is a computer. Thus, the content of your statement is: “this is like that”. “That” is the description of the object in your memory by a word – pada and “this” is the object - artha. Since “That” is in the past and “this” is in the present, they cannot be combined physically. They can only be combined through the “word” in its fundamental aspect. To understand this, let us take the examples of our grand father and great grand father. No one living has seen them. But everyone accepts their existence based on an oral description (we may not have their photos or portraits). They live only as a name (Na yat purastaditi  yanna paschat madhye cha tanna vyapadesha maatram). Yet, they live very much through us in our genes. It is no different from when they lived, because then also their body changed imperceptibly every moment. The definition of “santaana” is “avayava-avayavi pravaaha”, the sequential transformation of one form to a similar form. In this change, only the name remains constant. This is a gross (not a very scientific) description of shabda. This sound with a fixed meaning is called “vaak”.

To put it differently, let us take the theory of generation of sound. The word itself is an equation (saamketika). Sha + va + da + h = Shabdah (vinduvaatagnyambaraanaam tasmaat saamketikah smritaah). Here Sha stands for vindu – the base on which or from which sound is generated, va stands for vaata – the part of gravitational interaction that is responsible for motion. These are of 11 types (vaayurekaadasha purusha ekaadasha streekashcha). The da stands for electro part of electromagnetic interaction - agni. They are of 8 types (agnishcha jaatavedaashcha ….eteashtou vasabah kshitaah). The h stands for the medium – antareeksha (antaraa kshaantam bhavati) that contains 16 vala vyuhas. Gravitational force acts between two bodies or two particles. Once a particle acts on another (by any induced means) to move it, the confinement of the later at that point is disturbed leading to release of positive charge (agni) that pushes out the next particle. Immediately, the inertia of restoration (sthitisthaapaka samskaara or elasticity) acts to restore the particles to their original position. This creates a wave, as the momentum only is transmitted while the original particles are restored to their initial position. Again the process repeats due to inertia of restoration, though at a reduced intensity. This causes vibration that diminishes with time (unless fresh impetus is provided). The amplitude and wave-length of the waves thus generated are modified according to the magnitude of the 11+8=19 forces that cause vibration. The medium that carries it, has 16 types of forces. Thus, the total number of sounds that can be generated is 19 x 16 = 304 types (chaturuttara tri shata shabdaani). Of these only 12 types are within human audible range. The first of these 12 is called sphota and the last mahaghanarava. Much literature is available on sphota – but mostly they are misleading.

Creation (srishti) is coupling (samsrishti), which implies the coupling of two at a time (mithunam). Coupling can take place only with the application of force. These forces must belong to the two varieties of ba and da on a base sha. Only unlike the medium h in sound, they are confined. Thus, both structure formation and sound generation in the primordial stage shared a common ancestry. This common ancestry is called “Parameshthi Prajaapati”. Vaajasaneyi Samhita (8th chapter) talks about it. Everything is made out of it (Yasmaanna jaato paramanyamasti……). The Vaak thus generated belonged to two ctegories: Ambhruni Vaak that led to structure formation (Aham Rudrobhih Vasubhih charaamyaham) and Saraswati Vaak that led to sound generation.

According to the Pratishakhyas, when a person feels a need for communicating something, then only he speaks (creates vocal sounds). Whenever such a need is felt, the mind is the first to be activated. This releases energy that leads to expansion of the air within the body so that it moves upwards (mana kaayaagnimaahanti sa prerayati maarutah). This air, while coming out of the vocal chords, vibrates them leading to release of sound. If the air comes out directly through the nose, it is called “swaasha”. If it comes out through the mouth, it is called “naada”. The final letter that is uttered varies according to the following factors:
  1. Position of the vocal chords while producing sound – normal (Vivrhta) or strained (sambrhta),
  2. The efforts put in within the mouth or outside it ( vaahya and aavyantara prayatna),
  3. The place of articulation (sthaana),
  4. The organ of articulation (karana),
  5. The time taken for articulation (maatraa or kaala),
  6. The specific accent (udaatta, anudatta, swarita or pracheta),
  7. Perceptible nature of the sound (Devataa), and
  8. Class of interaction with other sounds (jaati) etc.,

Vajasaneyi Praatishaakshya (8-25) calls these letters of the alphabet Brahma Rashi. Thus, the script is called Brahmi script. The script also follows the above characteristics that distinguish each alphabet from others. For example, when the vocal chords are in their natural relaxed position while producing sound, the sound that is produced with least effort and least time is called ‘a’. Hence this or its variations is the first letter in all languages of the world. Since all other letter sounds are generated only after some modification to the above state, they can be said to be a derivative of ‘a’. While pronouncing ‘a’, the lips form a circular shape which is wide open. The script for ‘a’ in Brahmi and the meaning assigned to it has been devised keeping these factors in mind. To symbolize its centrality, one vertical line with half an expanding shape has been assigned as its script. Thus, in all languages, we find one vertical line and either full or part of a circle is used in writing its equivalent letter. Since no letter can be pronounced before it, it gives a negative connotation whenever it is placed before a word. On its own, it connotes infiniteness and its equivalent.

While uttering ‘a’, if the throat is choked a bit while allowing the sound to come out through the lips, it sounds like ‘ka’. If further pressure is applied, the air, instead of coming out straight, takes curved paths touching the teeth (dantya), lower portion of the root of upper teeth (murdhaa) and palate (taalu) generating sounds of ‘kha’, ‘ga’ and ‘gha’ respectively. Thus, the script symbolizing ‘ka’ has the vertical line of ‘a’ and a horizontal bar in its middle symbolizing its check or confinement. Since it connotes confinement, it represents Brahma, who was first born confined in a lotus. For that reason, all letters starting with ‘ka’ connote confinement in some aspect. While uttering ‘kha’, since the throat is further contracted, it requires more force to eject it from mouth. For this reason, the horizontal bar of ‘ka’ is pushed up and the meaning changes to expansion. Thus, ‘kha’ connotes space (Aakaash), which always expands to accommodate everything. While uttering ‘ga’, more force is needed and the trajectory of air inside mouth shows a vertical climb up and then coming down. This is reflected in the script for ‘ga’. For this reason, ‘ga’ connotes motion.

While uttering ‘pa’, the lips first close and then open. Thus, the script representing ‘pa’ is opposite that of ‘kha’. The closing creates a box like structure that is generally used for protecting valuables. Thus, ‘pa’ connotes protection (paa rakshane). The letter ‘ma’ is uttered like ‘pa’ - lips first closing and then opening, but with nasal sound. Hence the script representing ‘ma’ is a half circle and a full circle or its variants. Some more examples have been given in Annexure – 5. All other letters of the Brahmi script have been derived like this. Hence it has Vedic origin. No other language or script in the world can be explained in such a scientific manner.

The different Shiksha granths and the Pratishakhyas cater to the various Vedas. Thus, according to the number of letters used in those Shakhas, the numbers of letters in the alphabet vary. The notions of time (kala), place of articulation (sthana), external and internal efforts (vahya and avyantara prayatna) and the articulator (karana) are considered separately while pronouncing each letter. Further, the rules of part-participation (angangibhava), class difference (jaati bheda) and perceptible differences (devata bheda) are also considered. Along with pronunciation, the accent (swara) of each letter must be indicated through specific hand symbols that contract the nerves to generate the desired effect (yathaa vaani tathaa paani).

According to Vyasa Shiksha, each of the vowels (swara) ‘a’, ‘I’ and ‘u’, are of three types; viz;, short (hraswa), long (deergha), and protracted (pluta). The ‘rh’ is of two types; short (hraswa) and long (deergha). The ‘lr’ is only short (hraswa). With ‘e’, ‘ai’, ‘o’, ‘au’, two rangas (deergha ranga and pluta ranga) and the ‘o’ of Om, the total number of vowels become 19. In other texts it may be 23. Each of these is pronounced in different ascents called udatta, anudatta and swarita. These accents have further subdivisions. Swarita has seven subdivisions. Then each of these could be nasal or non-nasal. This makes each vowel to be pronounced in more than 18 different types and the meaning of the word changes with change in the method of pronunciation. The vowels are called Aksharas and the consonants are called varnas.

The consonants according to Vyasa Shiksha are 47 in number. From ‘ka’ to ‘ma’, the Sparsha varnas are 25. Combining the four Antasthya varnas ‘ya, ra, la, va’, six Ushma varnas ‘shha, sha, sa, ha’, the jihwamuliya and the upadhmaniya, ‘lh’, two nasal utterances (anuswara) – one with the ‘ga’ sound and the other without ‘ga’ sound, one aspiration (visarga), four vowel appearances of consonants called ‘swarabhaktis’, and four transitional sounds called ‘yama’, the total number of consonants are 47. However, according to some special or particular occasions, the number of the letters reaches up to 73 or sometimes after taking into account the organ emitting them, the number of the letters reach up to 108.

The pronunciations of Vedic letters are highly complicated. Here we give two examples.

Plutaranga: It has four matrikas. Its full matrika has partly closed glottis as the origin of articulation, external efforts are contracted larynx, place of articulation is heart, articulator is partly closed labia, internal efforts are extended inner efforts, mora (matra or duration of time) unit is one unit, perceptible nature is like sound generated by solids, and class is unattached passive class. Its half matrika has the same characteristics except that its place of articulation is the cerebrum and its duration of time is half mora. The quarter matrika has the same characteristics except that its places of articulation are both nasal holes, and its duration of time is one quarter mora. The double matrika has the same characteristics like quarter matrika except that its duration of time is two moras. Like all letters, these are also deformations of or arise out of ‘a’ ‘varna’ as follows: the origin of articulation is the glottis, external efforts are contracted larynx, place of articulation is the cerebrum, sounds like Gandhara swara, articulator is larynx, internal efforts are extended inner efforts, mora (matra or duration of time) unit is two mora units; half mora pause as of acute accent, mora (matra or duration of time) unit is two mora units; sound generated by air, class is unattached passive class and can be displayed on the mid-line of the index finger.

Anuswara with ‘ga’: It has partly closed glottis as the origin of articulation, external efforts are contracted larynx un-voiced, non-aspirated, place of articulation is Mandible, articulator is root of the tongue (uvula), internal efforts are mute consonant, duration of time is two mora units; perceptible nature is like sound generated by solar winds, and class is attached passive class.

The original language of the Vedas is the universal natural language, which was taught to the mankind by the Siddhas who came from outer space when the earth became habitable and the different life forms developed naturally on Earth and settled in different localities using naturally developed sign language without any grammar. The Vedic language was the natural language of the highest order that never changed its sequence, meaning or impact. Its effects followed the natural laws. Hence it was used to manipulate Nature in the desired way. It was very difficult for the general population to master and when they imitated Vedic language, it was expressed not as a coherent language, but a form that diluted the strict principles of the Vedic language leading to undesirable effects and doubts about the actual intention of the speaker. This necessitated language reform, which was done in two phases. The first was a more technical and close to the Vedic language for the learned, (need based but unlike Vedic language, it depended upon other factors for its effect). The other was a less technical and simple language meant for the common man. The first language was named Sanskrit because it was the outcome of language reformation and the second was called Prakrit because it was the reformation of the sign language used by the naturally developed populace. Since signs are imitations of something; it was imitation of the Vedic language. Hence, like Sanskrit, Prakrit was also founded on the Vedic language.

While talking about Sanskrit, one has to refer to the grammar of Panini. Hence we will compare the grammar of the Shiksha granthas and the Pratishakhyas with that of Ashtadhyayi of Panini. The very fact that Panini has referred to not less than 10 previous grammarians and many of those have been mentioned by Yaska in his Nirukta and Nighantu (which is a Vedanga - Vedic treatise), shows that Sanskrit has Vedic origins. The Shiksha granthas and the Pratishakhyas have defined each and every term giving justification for the same. Panini has only used these without defining the terms himself. This is a fundamental difference between Shiksha granthas and the Pratishakhyas and Ashtadhyayi of Panini pointing to the source.

The arrangement of different chapters in the Shiksha granthas and the Pratishakhyas follow a distinctly different pattern than that of Panini. The Nirukta and Nighantu of Yaska, Fit Sutra of Shantanava, The Jata Patala of Vyaadi, the Dhatu Paatha of Vararuchi, all stand a class apart from those of Ashtadhyayi.

The use of “Upasarga” is also different in Vedas from Sanskrit. While in the Vedas they are used separately, in Sanskrit, they are attached to the verbs.

The above examples are only illustrative. The roots of the words are constructed by extending the above principle. The words are formed from such roots by following standard grammar. To illustrate the mechanism of language formation, we are discussing the origin of Tamil language:

The original language of the Vedas is the universal natural language, which was taught to the mankind by the Siddhas who came from outer space when the earth became habitable and the different life forms developed naturally on Earth and settled in different localities using naturally developed language without any grammar. Some may question why the Siddhas settled only in India and nowhere else. The answer is India is the only place on Earth, where the six seasons of the year are fully perceptible. This makes the climatic changes gradual, so that its effect on our body is minimal. All the books on Ayurveda have discussed the effect of climatic change on our body elaborately.

While the Vedic language was the natural language of the highest order, it was very difficult for the general population and when they imitated Vedic language, the result was not a coherent language, but a form that diluted the strict principles of the Vedic language leading to doubts about the actual intention of the speaker. The dilution occurred in various ways in various places leading to further confusion. Thus the ancient seers called a conference to reform the language.

While the proceedings of the language reform committee were on, a dispute arose primarily between Agasti on one hand and the others on the other hand. A doubt may arise regarding the authenticity of the depicted episode due to the doubtful identity of Agasti, and Shambhu, the author of Shambhu Shikshaa, who has been refrred hereafter. This Shambhu should not be considered a mythological figure, but a historical person who lived actually in this land and authored several books. There are others bearing the same name. Their timing has to be derived from internal evidence of their writings, but their historicity is beyond doubt.

The general principle of action according to the Vedas is that everything happens based on the principle of cause and effect. Even the outcome of free-will is also determined by cause and effect. Though the Heisenberg’s so-called “Principle of Uncertainty” has questioned this belief, it is highly misunderstood due to its mathematical format. The “Principle” is still a postulate and is yet to be proved. To understand its true implication, please refer to our book “Vaidic Theory of Numbers” and our Essay “Is Reality Digital or Analog” published by FQXi community. We may initiate any action within our competence, but the effect is determined by the totality of all actions in that given context. It is not determined only by our actions. This introduces the element of uncertainty (karmanyevaadhikaaraste maa phaleshu kadaachana).

Our initiation of any action depends on our urge to satisfy some need and the knowledge (gnyaana) regarding the mechanism to satisfy that need. This knowledge leads to our desire (ichhaa) to initiate such action (kriyaa) that may lead to satisfy our urge. Whether we succeed in our efforts or not depends upon many other variables that is beyond our control. This principle applies in case of speech also. Our urge to communicate is based on our desire to satisfy some need and the knowledge regarding the mechanism of such communication. This leads to speech, which is an action.

The dispute between Agasti and the others was fundamental. According to the Vedic phonetics, speech is generated when there is knowledge of the need to be fulfilled and an effort is made to expand this desire to reach the listener. In other words, it gives rise to ichhaa and unmesha shakties. The language at this stage is universal and is called “paraa vaak”. It has no definite form, but could only be sensed. This knowledge activates the mind, which moves with the help of the vital energy generating heat at moolaadhaara chakra. This expands the praana vaayu in the upward direction (mana kaayaagnimaahanti, sa prerayati maarutah). This increases pressure at the base of the main body leading to further increase in temperature. The increased temperature pushes up the internal gravitational force to break the equilibrium at the naval region (manipura chakra). At this stage, the form of speech becomes limited to the person while retaining its paraa character. Thus, it is called “pashyanti vaak”. When the heat further pushes the internal energy flow of the body upwards, it reaches the chest region (anaahata chakra). The speech, which picks up momentum from here, is called “madhyamaa vaak” as it is intermediate between the internal desire of the speaker and the external sound that is communicated to the listener. After this, the force comes out vibrating the vocal chords in the throat (vishuddha chakra) and is released through mouth spreading itself in all directions (kadamba koraka nyaaya). Hence, it is called “vaikhari vaak”. Depending upon the position of the vocal chords, the efforts (prayatna) both inside and outside mouth, place of articulation (sthaana), articulator organ (karana), time taken (matraa), specific accent (swara), perceptible nature of the sound (Devataa) and Class of interaction with other sounds (jaati) etc., the released air creates different sounds of the alphabet. The sound thus generated is called language.

In the conference, while there was no dispute over the letters “a”, “i”, “u”, as they were the expressions of the dominant forces of “ichchaa”, “gnyaana” and “kriyaa” forces (shakti), the next letter “rh” invited dispute. According to the phonetic principle (Vaajasaneyi Praatishaakhya 4-17 and similar other texts), if there is a vowel before and after the ushma varnas, then they are pronounced as “rh” and “lr”. According to Rk Praatishaakhya 6-35, it is pronounced as one letter with one maatra. Thus, the letters are formed with ¼ of “a”, ½ of “ra” or “la” respectively and ¼ of “a”. While every one agreed to keep these as vowels based on their pronounced sound (beginning and ending with vowel) and time taken, Agasti wanted these to be consonants based on the fact that the expression of “a” at the end of it, even though faint, makes them consonants. While the general opinion was that both “ra” and “la” belong to consonant group because of their dependence on the vowel “a”, there was no unanimity on “rh” and “lr”.

Agasti opined that both “ra” and “la” belong to the “antastha” group of consonants, which are an expression of the “ichchaa” and “unmesha Shaktis”.  These are called “antastha” as they are considered as intermediate between vowels and consonants. Hence their further subdivision as vowels should be avoided. Further, “rh” and “lr” are original letters (moolaswara) and not combined letters (sandhyakshara). Though their sound is a combination of vowels and consonants, these are indistinguishable from each other. Further, the body part from which the sound turns outward in their cases are root of the tongue and root of the teeth respectively like those for “ka” and “ta”, which are consonants. Similarly the body part from which the final sound emanates in these cases are base of the jaws and tip of the tongue respectively like those for “ka” and “ta”. When “ra” precedes any consonant, it is called “ref”. If there is another “ushmavarna” (like “ha” or the second and the fourth letters of a varga), after “ref” or “la”, then distinguishing the pronunciation becomes difficult. Hence, while pronouncing such words, a letter like “rh” or “lr” is added. This process is called “swarabhakti” in Vedas other than Yajur Veda. Thus, “rh” and “lr” should be consonants and not vowels.

However the others opined that due to the same reasons, “rh” and “lh” should be treated as vowels as vowels are the “beeja” – the root in language classification. Further the expression of “ichchaa” and “unmesha Shakti” are perceptible only in “paraa vaak” and “pashyanti vaak”. It is not so clearly perceptible at the level of “vaikhari vaak”, which covers from “aa” to “sa”. Hence they should be vowels.

A similar dispute arose over the classification of the nasal “n” (anuswaara).  If the nasal “n” (anuswaara) precedes a light vowel (of one unit duration) then the vowel is pronounced for half units and the nasal is pronounced for one and a half units. If the nasal “n” (anuswaara) precedes a long vowel (of two units duration) then the vowel is pronounced for one and half units and the nasal is pronounced for half units. Since its duration for pronunciation is less than one unit in some cases, it cannot be a vowel. Since its duration for pronunciation is more than one unit in other cases, it could not be a consonant either. While others wanted it to be classified as a vowel for the above reason, Agasti wanted it to be a consonant. Agasti argued that “yama”, which implies the differentiation of repeated consonants of “sparsha” group, is also nasal. For example, if a consonant of “sparsha” group other than the nasal letter is repeated in a word such as “rukkamah”, then the second consonant could not be pronounced properly without differentiation (vichchheda) from the first. For this purpose, the second of the repeated letter is pronounced as nasal. On a similar analogy, the nasal “n” (anuswaara), which is extension of a consonant, should be treated as a consonant. Others rejected this argument on the ground that the above rule is not applicable to repeated nasal consonants. Hence, based on duration for pronunciation, it should be treated as a vowel.

The next dispute arose over the subgroup of the “sparsha varnas”. While every one accepted the five vargas of  “ka”, “cha”, “ta”, “ta”, “pa”, based on the internal effort (sprhshta – hence these are called sparsha varnas) and the places in the mouth after touching which it is ejected outwards, there were disputes over its subgroups. These vowels are pronounced due to the operation of the dominant forces of “gnyaana,” and “unmesha shakti”. There was no dispute on the last letter of these vargas, as its place of exit was nose also, i.e., these are nasal sounds.

The general opinion was for further classification of “ka” into “kha”, “ga”, “gha” based on the inner mouth, palate and the root of the teeth that are used before pronouncing these words. The external efforts in the case of the first and the third was “light - alpapraana”, whereas the same for the second and the fourth was “heavy – mahaapraana”. Further, the efforts in pronouncing the first and second letters belong to the category “Vivaara, shwaasa and aghosha”, whereas that in the case of the third, fourth and fifth belong to the category “Samvaara, naada and ghosha”. These differences justified a division of five for each of the above vargas. Agasti opined that these effects could come with increased application of force (prayatna). Moreover, these differences are not distinguishable, when the pitch is varied. Since similar application of force is used while uttering the same word at low and high voices, the words “kha”, “ga”, and “gha” are nothing but “ka” only. Further higher application of force is a condition for “ushma varna” category of vowels, which are dominated by “kriyaa” and “unmesha shakti”. But this is not applicable to “sparsha varnas” dominated by forces of “gnyaana,” and “unmesha Shakti”. The general opinion was that while vowels are “beeja”- root, thus could produce the same sound only, the consonants are “yoni”- originator, which can generate further variations.  Further, Agasti asserted that brevity is the essence of communication and diluting compactness of expression will reduce its efficacy. For the same reason, Agasti held that among all aspirates, the palatal, lingual and dental “sha” should be treated as one letter instead of three letters.

The others, while not disputing this view, opined that expression (vyanjakatwa) is the essence of communication. Since the subdivision gives better expression to these letters, it should be retained. They further pointed out that brevity is also the reason for sandhi – joining two words to make a composite word. However, when the place of discharge (sthaana) of sound in the mouth for the last letter of the first word and first letter of the last word are adjacent, then only a proper sandhi is possible. For example, in the sandhi of tat + purusha, the sthaana of ta and pa are root of the teeth and the lips respectively, which are adjacent. Hence we can utter tatpurusha without any problem. However, if we join two words where the sthaana of the junction letters are not the same nor adjacent, we cannot pronounce the word properly. For example in the sandhi of the words tat and hita, the sthaana of ha is the throat. Hence for proper pronunciation, the word ta must assume its fourth secondary subdivision dha, whose sthaana is root of the teeth. The joined word thus becomes taddhita, which can be pronounced easily and understood properly.

The next dispute was over the mode of pronunciation of the consonants belonging to sparsha category. Since the sounds of the consonants are transitory – (it takes half the time needed to pronounce a vowel clearly) – and what follows thereafter is a vowel, the general opinion was that the vowel ‘a’ should follow the consonants in the general case (unless another vowel is used). The reason for choosing “a” was that all other letters are variations of this. Hence, the consonant ‘k’ has to be pronounced as ‘ka’. But Agasti argued that in the pronunciation of a consonant, the position of vowel is not secondary. All consonants are expressions of ‘a’ in sambrta state (for explanation please refer to any book on shikshaa) depending upon sthaana and prayatna. Hence the vowel should be given its due importance by placing it before the consonant. Further, the vowel associated with a consonant cannot be ‘a’ as it is always ‘vyaavrta’, while the other letters are always ‘sambrta’. Further vowels are “beeja”- root and the consonants are “yoni”- originator. No sound can be produced without a root. But ‘a’ being sambrta, cannot be used. Hence it has to be ‘i’ only. Also, ‘a’ indicates the force of desire (ichchha shakti) only, where as the pronunciation of a consonant indicates the force of knowledge (gnyaana shakti) of the exact expression needed to satisfy the desire. Hence the vowel used in the pronunciation of a consonant should be ‘i’, only as it represents the expression of the force of knowledge. Hence the consonant ‘k’ should be pronounced as ‘ik’ and not as ‘ka’. Others did not accept this view.

While Agasti went on differing like this, the others went ahead with their decision. Feeling neglected and frustrated for being ignored, Agasti left the meeting in disgust. But he was convinced about the authenticity and correctness of his views. Hence he wanted an independent authority to judge his views. And who could be a better authority on the science of sound and language than Shambhu, the author of many books including the book on “Shikshaa” which bears His name. Even the great grammarian Paanini started his book with the fourteen “pratyaahaara sootras” attributed to Shambhu. It is said that if the knowledge of language and sound of Shambhu could be compared to an ocean (mahodadhi), the knowledge of Brhashpati, who learnt it from Shambhu, could be compared to half a pot (ardha kumbha). The knowledge of Indra, the author of Aindra Vyakaran, who learnt it from Brhashpati, is only one hundredth of that (tat bhaaga shatam cha). According to the Rhk Tantra (1.4) and Taittiriya Samhitaa of the Yajur Veda, it is Indra, who first developed the modern system of grammar. He broke up the sentence and arranged the words according to “vibhakti” and “pratyaya” – the parts of speech. It is from this breaking up (vyaakarot) that grammar (vyaakarana) got its name. The knowledge of Paanini, who learnt it from his predecessors and followed the theories developed by Indra, can be compared to a drop on the tip of a blade of grass (kushaagramaatram patityeka Paaninim). Thus Agasti went to Shambhu for a final assessment of his theories.

When Agasti reached Shambhu, he was enchanted with a sweet fragrance that was emanating from somewhere. Speechless, he looked around to find the source of such enchanting smell. Shambhu could understand his thoughts and silently signaled towards a hip of leaves and flowers of ‘vilvam’ tree lying in one corner. After his inquisitiveness was satisfied, Agasti exclaimed aloud, “Tamilam, Tamilam”, meaning thereby ‘enchanting, enchanting’. Then he discussed the issues pestering him with Shambhu. After hearing him fully, Shambhu told him that while the others are correct from the point of view of simplicity of expression, he was also correct from his point of view that brevity is the essence of communication. Extremely happy at the validation of his theories by none other than Shambhu, the greatest authority on language, Agasti set out to formulate a new language with his own grammar.

After the others formulated the grammar, the language was named as “Samskrta” or Sanskrit – literally meaning reformed. Agasti had to select a name for his language. He decided that when he went to Shambhu, where this new language was finally formulated, the first words occurred by him were “Tamilam, Tamilam”. Hence he decided to name the new language Tamil. The ‘rh’ and ‘lh’ of Sanskrit became the additional ‘rh’ and ‘l’ of Tamil consonant. While Sanskrit did not keep the “lh” of the Vedic language, Agasti kept it as “zh”. The ‘pluta’ ‘e’ and ‘o’ of Sanskrit were retained, in addition to their ‘deergha’ form since the previous vowels were kept in dual form, i.e., ‘hraswa’ and ‘deergha’ form. The ‘anuswaara’ of Sanskrit vowel became the additional ‘na’ in Tamil. The other differences between Tamil and Sanskrit are as discussed earlier.
However, Agasti had to make some adjustments and introduce some concepts of Sanskrit due to some functional difficulties. For example, in Sanskrit, ‘ka’, the first consonant is pronounced by contracting the throat slightly while allowing the inner air to come out through the vocal chords with lips forming a circle, which produce the sound ‘a’ in normal cases. Thus, the words beginning with ‘ka’ signify objects and ideas, which are contained or remain in a contained environment. Foe example, the normal meaning of the word ‘ka’ is water, which is always contained in its base. The letters ‘a’ and ‘ha’ belong to the category ‘paraa’ and ‘pashyanti’ respectively. When the letter ‘ha’ is added to a consonant, it implies the opposite meaning or the complement of the meaning expressed by the same letter added with ‘a’ due to the different forces involved in their generation. Thus, ‘kha’ implies unbound objects and ideas such as space, which is the opposite meaning of ‘ka’ implying containment. When a little additional force is applied to move the sound of ‘ka’, it generates the sound ‘ga’. This implies motion of the contained object. However, if ‘ha’ is added to ‘ga’, then it becomes ‘gha’, which implies stability and changelessness.

The same principle applies to ‘cha’, as it is produced when the process for pronouncing ‘ka’ is repeated. Thus the letter ‘cha’ implies repetition. For example, ‘ra’ implies motion. Hence the word ‘char’ implies repeated motion or moving ahead. Similarly, ‘ma’ implies negation. Hence the word ‘mar’ implies negation of motion, i.e., death. If ‘ha’ is added to ‘cha’, it becomes ‘chha’, which implies non-repetitive nature. But when we put a little additional force to move ‘cha’ and produce ‘ja’, it implies that which moves always repeatedly, i.e., the cycles of Nature, including creation itself. This concept could not be generated from the word ‘cha’ alone in Tamil. Thus, Agasti was forced to burrow some extra letters such as ‘ja’ from Sanskrit in to Tamil.

From the above discussion it is clear that Tamil is a very old language and contemporary to Sanskrit. Also it is a sister language of Sanskrit. It is one of the most scientific languages, which emphasized brevity in precise pronunciation than even Sanskrit. However, it is unfortunate to see some persons in their eagerness to de-link Tamil from Sanskrit have diluted this brevity to an unacceptable level. New words, not conforming to the basic principles of Tamil are being used in such regularity that few people now could read and understand classical Tamil literature including the revered “Thirukkural”, even though Thiruvalluvar, its author, is the most revered Tamil. Similarly, the “Thevaram”, an anthology of devotional songs written in praise of Lord Shiva is being increasingly neglected, even though its author Thirugnyaanasambandhar of Sirkazhi is a highly revered figure for the past one thousand and five hundred years. It is said that he was fed with divine milk mixed with wisdom by none other than Goddess Meenaakshi Herself on the steps of the Portamaraikulam, when he was three years old. Thirugnyaanasambandhar brought back to life Poombavai, daughter of Shivanesar, from the ashes after she died of snakebite and cremated. Poombavai spent the rest of her life serving Lord Kapaaleeshwarar. Even now there is a small shrine of Poombavai near the outer wall at the western side of the Kapaaleeshwarar temple at Mylapore.

Even the Temple Trustees often show haste in reaching the finale whenever the Thevaram or the other Tamil classical work Thiruvasakam is recited in temples. The Oduvars, the traditional reciters of Tamil devotional songs in religious ceremonies and marriages are frequently seen performing in funeral functions, even though they use different texts for such occasions.

The Tamil words used by the great teacher Kumaarila Bhatta in his Sanskrit works are no longer seen in their pristine form, but has been changed and deformed. Some letters of Tamil script are not used deliberately branding them as “grantha lipi”, i.e., specially designed to write Sanskrit words, even though it was part of the original Tamil language in accordance with its basic principles of pronunciation. Thus, Shiva is now written as ‘Chiva’, even though it is pronounced as Shiva. The letter ‘sha’ is not used saying that it is grantha lipi.  Such pronunciation is not only wrong, but goes against the principles of Tamil language as ‘sha’ belongs to the category of ‘antastha varna’, where as ‘cha’ belongs to the category ‘sparsha varna’. Both are generated by different forces and are not interchangeable.

The 9th Century Tamil Raamaayana (Raamaavataaram and not Irramaavataaram) by the venerable poet Kamban (Kambar with honorific) uses “Chanakan” (and not sanakan as some think) for Janaka.  Some people highlight this to show that Tamil language does not have the letter “ja”. But this is an erroneous concept. The letter “cha” has been used in place of “ja” for brevity according to the laws of Tamil grammar as has been explained above. Both in Tamil as well as in Sanskrit, the “cha varga” contain “ja” as its third extension.

The concept that Tamil language does not have such letters as “cha”, “ja” or “sa” is erroneous. In the word “panjam” (famine) which is a Tamil word, “ja” is pronounced as such. Similarly, in the Tamil word “naham” (nail), “ha” is pronounced as such. In the word “saappad” (meal), “sa” is pronounced as such. Modern Tamil uses the letter “cha” in place of “sa”.  However, the great teacher Kumaarila Bhatta had used “sa” while writing the word in Tamil. He even tried unsuccessfully to derive some Sanskrit words from some Tamil words. One such word was “saappad”, which he called “saap”. Even while writing English words such as “stores” or “fancy”, “sa” is used as such. While writing Shailaja in Tamil, “sha” is used. Then in writing Shiva, why “sa” cannot be used and why it should be written as “Chiva” defies logic.

Hope this helps in your understanding of some aspects of Reality. For any further clarification on these or any other points, you are always welcome.

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