Thursday, March 30, 2017



A friend wanted to know: what black holes are made of? If they form from the collapse of a huge star which runs out of hydrogene and helium, and after it explodes in supernova explosion, then the rest of gasses is away. It collapses into heavy elements stored nucleus. What happens with matter under extreme conditions we cannot create on earth to watch closely? However, very high pressures and very high and low temperatures are generated.

Let us keep certain observations in mind.
1) The black holes are known to have intense magnetic fields. It is known that when heated above 176° Fahrenheit (80° celsius), magnets will quickly lose their magnetic properties. The magnet will become permanently demagnetized if exposed to these temperatures for a certain length of time or heated at a significantly higher temperature (Curie temperature). Modern magnet materials do lose a very small fraction of their magnetism over time. For Samarium Cobalt materials, for example, this has been shown to be less that 1% over a period of ten years. Thus, to have the intense magnetic field, the interor of black holes cannot be hot. However, the modern notion is that it must be tremendously hot - millions of degrees Kelvin - which is self-contradictory.

2) The event horizon of a black hole is said to be a one-way filter in the black hole: anything can enter it, but nothing can leave it. The concept of event horizon itself is wrong.

If a light pulse expanding in two dimensions and time will sketch concentric circles and not as you have shown, which is a three dimensional structure. If we add the third dimension, then it will sketch concentric spheres of increased radius and not a time cone. This has misguided science for a long time and needs correction. We see when light from a radiating body reaches our eyes. It has no colors. Light itself is not visible unless it meets our eye to show its source. We see only the source and not the light proper. We see color only when a reflected light meets our eyes. All radiation move in curved path, i.e., waves within a fixed band. But once it is received in an apparatus including the eye, it behaves as a straight line. In both cases, it does not behave like a cone.

3) But that notion is now changing. Black holes do not have such "event horizons" according to Hawking, conformed by NASA. In that case, the event horizon would, in theory, become smaller than the apparent horizon. Hawking's new suggestion is that the apparent horizon is the real boundary. The absence of event horizons means that there are no black holes — in the sense of regimes from which light cannot escape to infinity. This was suggested earlier by Abhas Mitra, but his solution - Magnetically Eternally Collapsing Object (MECO) - is again wrong. If it is magnetic, it cannot be hot and nothing can collapse eternally.

4) Black holes are detected indirectly by the intense x-rays detected by them. When material falls into a black hole from a companion star, it gets heated to millions of degrees Kelvin and accelerated. The superheated materials emit X-rays, which can be detected by X-ray telescopes. But the difference in origin of x-rays and gamma rays is that, x-rays are emitted by the negatively charged outer electron cells of atoms, whereas gamma rays are emitted by the positively charged nucleus. There is no reason to believe that in a black hole, it happens otherwise. The nature of negative charge is to confine positive charge. Thus, there must be a positive charge in the core of the black hole, which should not be hot. The only possibility is it has to be antimatter.

5) A black hole is said to be a very simple object: it has only three properties: mass, spin and electrical charge. Because of the way in which black holes form, their electrical charge is said to be probably zero. But then charge neutral objects do not emit x-rays. If the radiation coming from the positively charge core, it should be gamma rays and not x-rays.

6) An object with immense mass (hence gravitational pull) like a galaxy or black hole between the Earth and a distant object could bend the light from the distant object into a focus – gravitational lensing. If a visible star or disk of gas has a "wobbling" motion or spinning and there is not a visible reason for this motion and the invisible reason has an effect that appears to be caused by an object with a mass greater than three solar masses (too big to be a neutron star), then it is possible that a black hole is causing the motion. Scientists then estimate the mass of the black hole by looking at its effect on the visible object. For example, at the center of the Milky Way, we see an empty spot where all of the stars are circling around as if they were orbiting a really dense mass. That is where the black hole is.

7) Black holes have spin. But since it is constituted of antimatter core, it cannot have normal spin, but internal spin, which would make entry into a black hole a winding path.

Interestingly, our ancients have described some such object, which has a winding path to the core, which is lighted but not hot, and any matter coming into contact with it gets annihilated. They describe the object by various names like Shilocchaya (meaning compact object), Guha (meaning visibility from within), whose center was described as negatively charged and called Swayamprabha (meaning self illuminated).

If we compare this description and the fact that the centers of galaxies have black holes, we come to an interesting conclusion. Think of a charge neutral object coming near a positively charged object. Part of the charge neutral object facing the positively charged object suddenly develops a negative charge and the other end positive charge, so that the negative charge, which generally confines the positive charge, is now itself confined between positive charges. This in turn leads to reaction involving release of high energy and further realignment restoring balance.

Such a thing happens inside atoms continuously involving protons and neutrons. The extra energy released appears as W bosons with a mass of 80.385 +/- 0.015 GeV/c^2, even though the masses of protons and neutrons are of the order of 938.28 MeV/c^2 and 939.57 MeV/c^2 respectively.

Conclusion: Black holes are macro equivalents of neutrons.

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